In this paper, we consider the problem of detecting whether a compromised router is maliciously manipulating its stream of packets. In particular, we are concerned with a simple yet effective attack in which a router selectively drops packets destined for some victim. Unfortunately, it is quite challenging to attribute a missing packet to a malicious action because normal network congestion can produce the same effect. Modern networks routinely drop packets when the load temporarily exceeds their buffering capacities. Previous detection protocols have tried to address this problem with a user-defined threshold: too many dropped packets imply malicious intent. However, this heuristic is fundamentally unsound; setting this threshold is, at best, an art and will certainly create unnecessary false positives or mask highly focused attacks. We have designed, developed, and implemented a compromised router detection protocol that dynamically infers, based on measured traffic rates and buffer sizes, the number of congestive packet losses that will occur. Once the ambiguity from congestion is removed, subsequent packet losses can be attributed to malicious actions. We have tested our protocol in Emulab and have studied its effectiveness in differentiating attacks from legitimate network behavior.
Internet dependability, intrusion detection and tolerance, distributed systems, reliable networks, malicious routers.
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CHECKSUMS FOR EMBEDDED CONTROL NETWORKS
Embedded control networks commonly use checksums to detect data transmission errors. However, design decisions about which checksum to use are difficult because of a lack of information about the relative effectiveness of available options. We study the error detection effectiveness of the following commonly used checksum computations: exclusive or (XOR), two’s complement addition, one’s complement addition, Fletcher checksum, Adler checksum, and cyclic redundancy codes (CRCs). A study of error detection capabilities for random independent bit errors and burst errors reveals that the XOR, two’s complement addition, and Adler checksums are suboptimal for typical network use. Instead, one’s complement addition should be used for networks willing to sacrifice error detection effectiveness to reduce computational cost, the Fletcher checksum should be used for networks looking for a balance between error detection and computational cost, and CRCs should be used for networks willing to pay a higher computational cost for significantly improved error detection.
Real-time communication, networking, embedded systems, checksums, error detection codes.
CREDIT CARD FRAUD DETECTION USING HIDDEN MARKOV MODEL
Due to a rapid advancement in the electronic commerce technology, the use of credit cards has dramatically increased. As credit card becomes the most popular mode of payment for both online as well as regular purchase, cases of fraud associated with it are also rising. In this paper, we model the sequence of operations in credit card transaction processing using a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) and show how it can be used for the detection of frauds. An HMM is initially trained with the normal behavior of a cardholder. If an incoming credit card transaction is not accepted by the trained HMM with sufficiently high probability, it is considered to be fraudulent. At
the same time, we try to ensure that genuine transactions are not rejected. We present detailed experimental results to show the effectiveness of our approach and compare it with other techniques available in the literature.
Internet, online shopping, credit card, e-commerce security, fraud detection, Hidden Markov Model.
4G MAGIC COMMUNICATIONS
The approaching 4G (fourth generation) mobile communication systems are projected to solve still-remaining problems of 3G (third generation) systems and to provide a wide variety of new services, from high-quality voice to high-definition video to high-data-rate wireless channels. The term 4G is used broadly to include several types of broadband wireless access communication systems, not only cellular telephone systems. One of the terms used to describe 4G is MAGIC—Mobile multimedia, anytime anywhere, Global mobility support, integrated wireless solution, and customized personal service. As a promise for the future, 4G systems, that is, cellular broadband wireless access systems have been attracting much interest in the mobile communication arena. The 4G systems not only will support the next generation of mobile service, but also will support the fixed wireless networks. This paper presents an overall vision of the 4G features, framework, and integration of mobile communication. The features of 4G systems might be summarized with one word—integration. The 4G systems are about seamlessly integrating terminals, networks, and applications to satisfy increasing user demands. The continuous expansion of mobile communication and wireless networks shows evidence of exceptional growth in the areas of mobile subscriber, wireless network access, mobile services, and applications.
A BLUETOOTH USER INTERFACE IN THE CAR
The automotive industry today is competitive and the car manufacturers try to attract customers with new technology. At the same time the everyday use of information technology is increasing and this technology will also be brought into the car. Bringing additional technology into the car that is not developed for the special car environment raises safety issues. For this reason, Volvo Car Corporation has chosen to investigate the possibilities of using Bluetooth for connection between different infotainment devices and the car network MOST. Earlier in this Bluetooth project hardware and software for such a Bluetooth node was developed by master students in computer science, but without any concern to the user interface. The purpose of this master thesis is to investigate what could be a suitable user interface for such a Bluetooth node, with special attention to when a cellular phone is connected to it. A suitable user interface of course has to be adapted to the special context in the car and the task of using a cellular phone, therefore a user analysis and a task analysis was done to get valuable information about the context and its demands. It is also important that the interaction technique used is suitable for the driving context. Although the field of novel interaction techniques was explored, this did not result in finding a superior interaction technique for the car environment. A design proposal was developed and evaluated to find out in more detail what the requirements for a suitable Bluetooth node user interface are. The evaluation revealed some things that should be redesigned before the design proposal is a suitable user interface for a Bluetooth node.
Bluetooth, Driving Context, User Interface
A CASE FOR END SYSTEM MULTICAST
The conventional wisdom has been that IP is the natural protocol layer for implementing multicast related functionality. However, more than a decade after its initial proposal, IP Multicast is still plagued with concerns pertaining to scalability, network management, deployment and support for higher layer functionality such as error, flow and congestion control. In this paper, we explore an alternative architecture that we term End System Multicast, where end systems implement all multicast related functionality including membership management and packet replication. This shifting of multicast support from routers to end systems has the potential to address most problems associated with IP Multicast. However, the key concern is the performance penalty associated with such a model. In particular, End System Multicast introduces duplicate packets on physical links and incurs larger end-to-end delays than IP Multicast.
A COMPACT ALGORITHM FOR MULTI-HOP BLUETOOTH SCATTERNET FORMATION (CAMBS)
Bluetooth is a technology for wireless communication occupying the 2.4GHz radio frequency band. The potential for Bluetooth to be involved in wireless sensor networks and mobile wireless networks is immense, due to the low cost, royalty-free license, and low energy consumption. Multiple Bluetooth devices can join together to form a one-hop network called piconet consisting of one Bluetooth master and at most seven Bluetooth slaves. Networks between piconets is termed scatternet, which provides a true multi-hop scenario suitable for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET).
In this dissertation, I present a new method of forming a tree-based scatternet. The method consists of three stages. In the first stage, devices are set to discover neighbouring devices. Once discovered, the two devices are set in a master-slave relationship of either a new piconet or an existing piconet. The second stage involves the formation of a tree from the relationship discovered in the first stage. A set of rules is defined to accurately set and join the relationship within the tree. The third stage is the maintenance of the trees. Devices will periodically enter this stage to check connections, and modify the tree if needed. The main concern of this stage is to ensure tree properties are upheld and that disjoint devices are accounted for. Modelling, simulation, and analysis of the protocol were conducted on networks of
sizes 5, 10 and 15 nodes on the OPNET simulator.
Bluetooth Scatternet Formation, Bluetooth Device Discovery, Scatternet Tree Formation, Scatternet Tree Maintenance
A COST EFFECTIVE WEB SERVER BASED HOME APPLIANCES CONTROL SYSTEM
The paper presents a cost effective approach to control home appliances such as light, fan, heater, washing machine, motor, etc over the Internet. The appliances are connected to the server machine and can be controlled over the Internet using a web browser on a desktop PC, Laptop computer or PDA. The parallel port is used to transfer data from server computer to particular device to be controlled. An interface device is designed to connect the high power loads to the parallel port. The developed web user interface allows the user to control home appliances directly or by using Schedule option. We have developed a system, by which it is possible to properly control eight appliances remotely through Internet.
Internet, parallel port, interface box, remote control.
A DBMS WITH SQL INTERPRETER
This project aims to implement a database management system. This
interprets a subset of database administration and SQL commands. It possesses a subset of functionalities provided by MySQL 4.0. The interpretation would result in actions on the underlying database. The development includes the design of the database architecture and a SQL interpreter. The various stages involved are Lexical Analysis, Syntax Analysis, Semantic Analysis, Type Checking, Intermediate File Generation, Evaluation and displaying results on a GUI.
A DISTRIBUTED AND SCALABLE ROUTING TABLE MANAGER FOR THE NEXT GENERATION OF IP ROUTERS
In recent years, the exponential growth of Internet users with increased bandwidth requirements has led to the emergence of the next generation of IP routers. Distributed architecture is one of the promising trends providing petabit routers with a large switching capacity and high-speed interfaces. Distributed routers are designed with an optical switch fabric interconnecting line and control cards. Computing and memory resources are available on both control and line cards to perform routing and forwarding tasks. This new hardware architecture is not efficiently utilized by the traditional software models where a single control card is responsible for all routing and management operations. The routing table manager plays an extremely critical role by managing routing information and in particular, a forwarding information table. This article presents a distributed architecture set up around a distributed and scalable routing table manager. This architecture also comes provides improvements in robustness and resiliency. The proposed architecture is based on a sharing mechanism between control and line cards and is able to meet the scalability requirements for route computations, notifications, and advertisements. A comparative scalability evaluation is made between distributed and centralized architectures in terms of required memory and computing resources.
A MULTIHOMING SOLUTION FOR EFFECTIVE LOAD BALANCING
Multihoming is a technique to increase the reliability and Qos of an internet connection using multiple network links. A network is said to be multihomed if it has more than one path to the global internet via multiple ISPs. Our aim is to develop a linux based multihoming solution that does outgoing load balancing which includes development of tools for estimating path characteristics and a userspace daemon process which provides the kernel with the necessary data.
A FAITHFUL DISTRIBUTED MECHANISM FOR SHARING THE COST OF MULTICAST TRANSMISSIONS
The problem of sharing the cost of multicast transmissions was studied in the past, and two mechanisms, Marginal Cost (MC) and Shapley Value (SH), were proposed to solve it. Although both of them are strategyproof mechanisms, the distributed protocols implementing them are susceptible to manipulation by autonomous nodes. We propose a distributed Shapley Value mechanism in which the participating nodes do not have incentives to deviate from the mechanism specifications. We show that the proposed mechanism is a faithful implementation of the Shapley Value mechanism. We experimentally investigate the performance of the existing and the proposed cost-sharing mechanisms by implementing and deploying them on PlanetLab. We compare the execution time of MC and SH mechanisms for the Tamper-Proof and Autonomous Node models. We also study the convergence and scalability of the mechanisms by varying the number of nodes and the number of users per node. We show that the MC mechanisms generate a smaller revenue compared to the SH mechanisms, and thus, they are not attractive to the content provider. We also show that increasing the number of users per node is beneficial for the systems implementing the SH mechanisms from both computational and economic perspectives.
Multicast cost sharing, faithful implementation, algorithmic mechanism design.
A NOVEL FRAMEWORK FOR SEMANTIC ANNOTATION AND PERSONALIZED RETRIEVAL OF SPORTS VIDEO
Sports video annotation is important for sports video semantic analysis such as event detection and personalization. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for sports video semantic annotation and personalized retrieval. Different from the state of the art sports video analysis methods which heavily rely on audio/visual features, the proposed approach incorporates web-casting text into sports video analysis. Compared with previous approaches, the contributions of our approach include the following.
- The event detection accuracy is significantly improved due to the incorporation of web-casting text analysis.
- The proposed approach is able to detect exact event boundary and extract event semantics that are very difficult or impossible to be handled by previous approaches.
- The proposed method is able to create personalized summary from both general and specific point of view related to particular game, event, player or team according to user’s preference.We present the framework of our approach and details of text analysis, video analysis, text/video alignment, and personalized retrieval. The experimental results on event boundary detection in sports video are encouraging and comparable to the manually selected events. The evaluation on personalized retrieval is effective in helping meet users’ expectations.
Annotation, event detection, personalized retrieval, sports video analysis, summarization.
A PRECISE TERMINATION CONDITION OF THE PROBABILISTIC PACKET MARKING ALGORITHM
The probabilistic packet marking (PPM) algorithm is a promising way to discover the Internet map or an attack graph that the attack packets traversed during a distributed denial-of-service attack. However, the PPM algorithm is not perfect, as its termination condition is not well defined in the literature. More importantly, without a proper termination condition, the attack graph constructed by the PPMalgorithm would be wrong. In this work,weprovide a precise termination condition for thePPMalgorithm andnamethe newalgorithm the rectifiedPPM(RPPM) algorithm. The most significant merit of theRPPMalgorithm is that when the algorithm terminates, the algorithm guarantees that the constructed attack graph is correct, with a specified level of confidence. We carry out simulations on the RPPM algorithm and show that theRPPMalgorithm can guarantee the correctness of the constructed attack graph under
- different probabilities that a router marks the attack packets and
- different structures of the network graph.
TheRPPMalgorithm provides an autonomous way for the original PPM algorithm to determine its termination, and it is a promising means of enhancing the reliability of the PPM algorithm.
Network-level security and protection, probabilistic computation.
A SMARTPHONE APPLICATION TO REMOTELY ACCESS A PC OVER THE INTERNET
A Smartphone is a device that can take care of all of our handheld computing and communication needs in a single, small package. Unlike many traditional cell phones, Smartphones allow individual users to install, configure and run applications of their choice. A Smartphone offers the ability to conform the device to our particular way of doing things. Most standard cell-phone software offers only limited options for re-configuration, forcing us to adapt to the way it is set up. On a standard phone, whether or not we like the built-in calendar application, we are stuck with it except for a few minor tweaks. If that phone were a Smartphone, we could install any compatible calendar application we like. This project aims to develop a Windows CE application for Windows powered Smartphone running Smartphone 2002 operating system. The application will enable the Smartphone user to access a PC remotely enabling the user to start a shell and execute commands like, up2date, for updating packages on the PC via the internet, fsck to run scan disk etc., send messages to users logged on to the same network to which the PC is connected and possibly retrieve or backup data over the Internet. The user can also execute the command halt to finally switch off the PC. All this is made possible via GPRS connection on the phone running a client program and the PC connected to the Internet running the corresponding server program which includes the shell interpreter as well as a dynamic DNS client.
WS-FIT: A TOOL FOR DEPENDABILITY ANALYSIS OF WEB SERVICES
This paper provides an overview of fault injection techniques and their applicability to testing SOAP RPC based web service systems. We also give a detailed example of the WS-FIT package and use it to detect a problem in a web service based system.
A VISION FROM THE FUTURE: BEYOND 3G TDD
This article introduces the visions and developments of Beyond 3G mobile communications in the China TDD Special Work Group. System structure, radio transmission design, radio resource management, and demonstration system implementation are covered. In system structure, the concept of group cell and the architecture of distributed antennas are introduced. The radio link transmission design presented in this article includes the radio frame structure, multiple access scheme, and promising key techniques. Link-level simulations prove the advantages of the design. The radio resource management strategies are introduced to optimize the system performance. The B3G TDD demonstration system being built by the TDD
Special Work Group is also shown finally.
A WISE EXTENSION OF SCTP FOR WIRELESS NETWORKS
This paper presents WiSE, a transport-layer protocol that modifies the standard SCTP protocol. WiSE aims at exploiting SCTP’s multihoming capabilities by selecting in real time the best choice among available, alternate paths to the same destination. Through the use of bandwidth estimation techniques, WiSE tries to infer whether losses are due to congestion or radio channel errors. At the same time, the available bandwidth on the current path used for transmission is matched to that of an alternate path, also probed for available bandwidth; if the current path is severely congested, and the alternate path is lightly loaded, WiSE switches the transmission onto the alternate path, using SCTP’s flexible path management capabilities. Extensive simulations under different scenarios highlight the superiority of the proposed solution with respect to the standard SCTP implementation.
SCTP, bandwidth estimation, multihoming, congestion control
ACCESS CONTROL USING BLUETOOTH
This thesis project proposes a method of access control using Bluetooth. Currently access control methods require physical contact to a device, such as a swipe-card. Bluetooth is a wireless technology that could be used to replace such applications, and provide the convenience of wireless access control. The purpose of this thesis is to demonstrate that such a concept is feasible, by implementing one such application.
The application developed in this thesis involves the shutting off of ringing tones of mobile phones that enter a “silent” zone. Such a policy is enforced by a Bluetooth access point situated in this “silent” zone. The access point will send out a “beacon” signal to the mobile phone, via Bluetooth, telling it to shut down its ringing tone. Another focus of this thesis is to ensure that this procedure is secure. Both the mobile phone and access point will have to carry out an authentication procedure, designed in this thesis. With the success of this thesis, such a concept could be extended to other forms of access control applications.
AN ADAPTIVE PROGRAMMING MODEL FOR FAULT-TOLERANT DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING
The capability of dynamically adapting to distinct runtime conditions is an important issue when designing distributed systems where negotiated quality of service (QoS) cannot always be delivered between processes. Providing fault tolerance for such dynamic environments is a challenging task. Considering such a context, this paper proposes an adaptive programming model for fault-tolerant distributed computing, which provides upper-layer applications with process state information according to the current system synchrony (or QoS). The underlying system model is hybrid, composed by a synchronous part (where there are time bounds on processing speed and message delay) and an asynchronous part (where there is no time bound). However, such a composition can vary over time, and, in particular, the system may become totally asynchronous (e.g., when the underlying system QoS degrade) or totally synchronous. Moreover, processes are not required to share the same view of the system synchrony at a given time. To illustrate what can be done in this programming model and how to use it, the consensus problem is taken as a benchmark problem. This paper also presents an implementation of the model that relies on a negotiated quality of service (QoS) for communication channels.
Adaptability, asynchronous/synchronous distributed system, consensus, distributed computing model, fault tolerance, quality of service.
AN ALTERNATE CONNECTION ESTABLISHMENT SCHEME IN THE BLUETOOTH SYSTEM
The Bluetooth system has a unique connection establishment procedure. Its uniqueness is due to the fact that Bluetooth units know nothing about one another prior to connection. It is the goal of Bluetooth to be a universal standard and therefore, any Bluetooth-enabled device anywhere in the world should be able to make a connection to any other Bluetooth-enabled device. The following tasks have to be performed by the Bluetooth unit for a connection to be established: find out the address of the device to be connected to, guess the clock of the device to be connected to, try to find the proper frequency to connect to the device using the estimated knowledge of the device’s clock.In order to find out the address of the other device a procedure called Inquiry has been defined. In order to make an actual connection to the other device a procedure called Paging has been defined. The procedures of Inquiry and Paging can be quite lengthy due to frequency-time uncertainties. Most efficient connection establishment procedures come at a price of high power consumption.In this paper I propose a new way to establish links in a Bluetooth system. This new procedure gets rid of the frequency uncertainty that exists before a connection is established. Timing synchronization matters only because time determines what frequency is used at a particular instant. Since now we know the frequency used at any instant a time uncertainty is removed as well.Analysis of most common connection establishment scenarios reveals that the new procedure is faster than the old one and less vulnerable to noisy environments.
AN OVERVIEW ON PEER-TO-PEER INFORMATION SYSTEMS
The limitations of client/server systems become evident in an Internetscale distributed environment. P2P systems offer an alternative to traditional client/server systems: Every node acts both as a client and a server and “pays” its participation by providing access to its computing resources. Systems such as Napster and Gnutella have proven their practical applicability. In this article we briefly introduce the key concepts and properties of the P2P paradigm and overview commercial systems and research approaches.
Peer-to-Peer Systems, Information Systems
ANALYSIS OF EVENT MODELS IN EVENT-BASED MIDDLEWARE
The concept of a middleware was introduced to facilitate communication between entities in a heterogeneous distributed computing environment. The main task of an event-based middleware is to disseminate data to all interested parties in a largescale distributed system. Hence, an event model is needed to describe how data, and interest in that data, is expressed in the system i.e. event publication and event subscription respectively. In our system, we represent an event as an object and the event model is illustrated using a sample application.
ANALYSIS OF ROUTING MODELS IN EVENT BASE MIDDLEWARES
Event-based middleware is a new kind of middleware that is targeted at the development of large-scale distributed systems. Its communication strategy follows the publish/ subscribe model, and is also supports common middleware functionality. The communication issues are handled by the middleware’s routing model, which provides means to route data between the various components in a distributed system. This project aims at studying the routing models of popular event-based middlewares, implementing them and comparing them.
COMPILER DIRECTED MONITORING OF RUN TIME DATA ACCESS USING SUIF
This project aims at two objectives. First, study the working of the SUIF infrastructure. Second, develop a pass which will allow us to implement run time monitoring of data access. This consists of inserting function calls at different points in the input program (which is in SUIF format) and developing a monitor which is called at runtime.
ANALYSIS ON SECURITY ENHANCEMENT OF LINUX KERNEL
Security is one of the important aspects in networked area and unnetworked area. The programs and files must be protected from malicious programs that accesses and manipulates content in the system. Discretionary Access Control (DAC) fails to provide different levels of security. It divides the users into three categories (Owner, Group and Others) to provide security for the data. There is no administration over running processes and network sockets.
Security-enhanced Linux (SELinux) is an implementation of a flexible and fine-grained mandatory access control mechanism (MAC) architecture called Flask in the Linux kernel. This mechanism is in the Linux kernel, checks for allowed operations after standard Linux discretionary access controls are checked.
SELinux provides a mechanism to enforce the separation of information based on confidentiality and integrity requirements. By allowing threats of tampering and bypassing of application security mechanisms to be addressed, SELinux enables the confinement of damage that can be caused by malicious or flawed applications. This allows the Linux operating platform to support stronger levels of security.
ANT BASED ADAPTIVE MULTICAST ROUTING PROTOCOL (AAMRP) FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS
Multicasting is effective when its group members are sparse and the speed is low. On the other hand, broadcasting is effective when the group members dense and the speed are high. Since mobile ad hoc networks are highly dynamic in nature, either of the above two strategies can be adopted at different scenarios. In this paper, we propose an ant agent based adaptive, multicast protocol that exploits group members’ desire to simplify multicast routing and invoke broadcast operations in appropriate localized regimes. By reducing the number of group members that participate in the construction of the multicast structure and by providing robustness to mobility by performing broadcasts in densely clustered local regions, the proposed protocol achieves packet delivery statistics that are comparable to that with a pure multicast protocol but with significantly lower overheads. By our simulation results, we show that our proposed protocol achieves increased Packet Delivery Fraction (PDF) with reduced overhead and routing load.
ASSESSING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SUCCESS EFFECTIVENESS MODELS
This paper proposes a framework for assessing knowledge management system, KMS, Success Models. The framework uses three criteria: how well the model fits actual KMS success factors, the degree to which the model has a theoretical foundation, and if the model can be used for two types of approaches to building a KMS. The framework is then applied to four KMS success models found in the literature and is determined to be a useful framework for assessing KMS success models.
AUTOMATED GENERATION OF CYCLE LEVEL SIMULATORS FOR EMBEDDED PROCESSORS
Embedded processors are changing the world. The development of scenario specific processors with an emphasis on a highly specific functionality, fast development time and high reliability has opened up several new vistas for the future of microprocessor development. With the development of embedded processors likely to become The happening field in the next few years, an absolute necessity in processor development is the use of a processor simulation tool to validate new embedded processor designs and obtain performance statistics. Tools that automatically generate these simulators have tremendous applicability. This project is an attempt at developing one such Automated Generator of Cycle Level Simulators for Embedde