IEEE XPLORE PROJECT’S ABSTRACT

AN AGENT BASED INTRUSION DETECTION, RESPONSE AND BLOCKING USING SIGNATURE METHOD IN ACTIVE NETWORKS

ABSTRACT

As attackers use automated methods to inflict widespread damage on vulnerable systems connected to the network, it has become painfully clear that traditional manual methods of protection do not suffice. This paper discusses an intrusion prevention approach, intrusion detection, response based on active networks that helps to provide rapid response to vulnerability advisories.

A intrusion detection and intrusion blocker that can provide interim protection against a limited and changing set of high-likelihood or high-priority threats. It is expected that this mechanism would be easily and adaptively configured and deployed to keep pace with the ever-evolving threats on the network, intrusion detection and response based on agent system, digital signature used to provide a security.

Active networks are an exciting development in networking services in which the infrastructure provides customizable network services to packets. The custom network services can be deployed by the user inside the packets themselves. In this paper we propose the use of agent based intrusion detection and response. Agents are integrated with the collaborative IDS in order to provide them with a wider array of information to use their response activities.Keywords: intrusion detection, blocking, response, agents, digital signature.

A NEAR-OPTIMAL MULTICAST SCHEME FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS USING A HYBRID GENETIC ALGORITHM

ABSTRACT

Multicast routing is an effective way to communicate among multiple hosts in a network. It outperforms the basic broadcast strategy by sharing resources along general links, while sending information to a set of predefined multiple destinations concurrently.  However, it is vulnerable to component failure in ad hoc network due to the lack  of  redundancy,  multiple  paths  and  multicast  tree  structure.  Tree  graph optimization  problems  (GOP)  are  usually  difficult  and  time  consuming  NP- hard or NP-complete problems.  Genetic  algorithms  (GA)  have  been  proven  to  be  an  efficient  technique  for solving  the  GOP,  in  which  well-designed  chromosomes  and  appropriate operators are key factors that determine the performance of the GAs.  Limited  link,  path  constraints,  and  mobility  of  network  hosts  make  the multicast routing protocol design particularly challenging in wireless ad hoc networks.  Encoding  trees  is  a  critical  scheme  in  GAs  for  solving  these problems because each code should represent a tree.  Prufer number is the most representative method of vertex encoding, which is  a  string  of  n-2  integers  and  can  be  transformed  to  an  n-node  tree. However,  genetic  algorithm  based  on  Prufer  encoding  (GAP)  does  not preserve  locality,  while  changing  one  element  of  its  vector  causes dramatically change in its corresponding tree topology.  In  this  paper,  we  propose  a  novel  GA  based  on  sequence  and  topology encoding (GAST) for multicast protocol is introduced for multicast routing in wireless  ad  hoc  networks  and  generalizes  the  GOP  of  tree-based  multicast protocol as well as three associated operators.  It  has  revealed  an  efficient  method  of  the  reconstruction  of  multicast  tree topology  and  the  experimental  results  demonstrated  the  effectiveness  of GAST compare to GAP technique.


A NOVEL SECURE COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL FOR AD HOC NETWORKS [SCP]

ABSTRACT

An ad hoc network is a self organized entity with a number of mobile nodes without any centralized access point and also there is a topology control problem which leads to high power consumption and no security, while routing the packets between mobile hosts. Authentication is one of the important security requirements of a communication network. The common authentication schemes are not applicable in Ad hoc networks.

In this paper, we propose a secure communication protocol for communication between two nodes in ad hoc networks. This is achieved by using clustering techniques. We present a novel secure communication framework for ad hoc networks (SCP); which describes authentication and confidentiality when packets are distributed between hosts with in the cluster and between the clusters. These cluster head nodes execute administrative functions and network key used for certification. The cluster head nodes (CHs) perform the major operations to achieve our SCP framework with help of Kerberos authentication application and symmetric key cryptography technique, which will be secure, reliable, transparent and scalable and will have less overhead.

Keywords:

Security, Authentication, Confidentiality, Clustering.

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON DEPENDABLE AND SECURE COMPUTING, VOL. 5, NO. 1, JANUARY-MARCH 2008

CONTROLLING IP SPOOFING THROUGH INTERDOMAIN PACKET FILTERS

ABSTRACT

The Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attack is a serious threat to the legitimate use of the Internet.  Prevention  mechanisms  are thwarted  by  the  ability  of  attackers  to  forge  or  spoof  the  source addresses in IP packets. By employing IP spoofing, attackers can evade detection and put a substantial burden on the destination network for policing attack packets.

In  this  paper,  we  propose  an  interdomain  packet  filter  (IDPF) architecture  that  can  mitigate  the  level  of  IP  spoofing  on  the Internet.  A  key  feature  of  our  scheme  is  that  it  does  not  require global routing  information.  IDPFs  are  constructed  from  the information  implicit  in  Border  Gateway  Protocol  (BGP)  route updates and are deployed in network border routers.

We  establish  the  conditions  under  which  the  IDPF  framework correctly  works  in  that  it  does  not  discard  packets  with  valid source  addresses.  Based on extensive simulation studies, we show that, even with partial deployment on the Internet, IDPFs can proactively limit the spoofing capability of attackers.

In addition, they can help localize the origin of an attack packet to a small number of candidate networks.

Index Terms

IP  spoofing,  DDoS,  BGP,  network-level  security  and  protection, routing protocols

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS, MAN, AND CYBERNETICS—PART C: APPLICATIONS AND REVIEWS, VOL. 38, NO. 3, MAY 2008

A NEW MODEL FOR SECURE  DISSEMINATION OF XML CONTENT

ABSTRACT

The  paper  proposes  an  approach  to  content  dissemination  that  exploits  the structural  properties  of  an  Extensible  Markup  Language  (XML)  document object  model  in  order  to  provide  an  efficient  dissemination  and  at  the  same time assuring content integrity and confidentiality.  Our  approach  is  based  on  the  notion  of  encrypted  postorder  numbers  that support the integrity and confidentiality requirements of XML content as well as  facilitate  efficient  identification,  extraction,  and  distribution  of  selected content portions.  By  using  such  notion,  we  develop  a  structurebased  routing  scheme  that prevents  information  leaks  in the XML data dissemination, and assures that content is delivered to users according to the access control policies, that is, policies specifying which users can receive which portions of the contents.  Our proposed dissemination approach further enhances such structure based, policy-based routing by combining it with multicast in order to  achieve  high  efficiency  in  terms  of  bandwidth  usage  and  speed  of  data delivery, thereby enhancing scalability.  Our  dissemination  approach  thus  represents  an  efficient  and  secure mechanism  for  use  in  applications  such  as  publish–subscribe  systems  for XML Documents.  The  publish–subscribe  model  restricts  the  consumer  and  document  source information  to  the  routers  to  which  they  register  with.  Our framework facilitates dissemination of contents with varying degrees of confidentiality and integrity requirements in a mix of trusted and untrusted networks, which is prevalent in current settings across enterprise networks and the web.  Also, it does not require the routers to be aware of any security policy in the sense that the routers do not need to implement any policy related to access control.

Index Terms

Encryption,  Extensible  Markup  Language  (XML),  postorder  traversal, preorder  traversal,  publish–subscribe,  security,  structure-based  routing, trees

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MOBILE COMPUTING, VOL. -, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2008

BANDWIDTH EFFICIENT VIDEO MULTICASTING IN MULTIRADIO MULTICELLULAR WIRELESS NETWORKS

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we propose a new mechanism to select the cells and the  wireless  technologies  for  layer-encoded  video multicasting in the heterogeneous wireless networks.  Different  from  the  previous  mechanisms,  each  mobile  host  in  our mechanism  can  select  a  different  cell  with  a  different  wireless technology  to  subscribe  each  layer  of  a  video  stream,  and  each cell  can  deliver  only  a  subset  of  layers  of  the  video  stream  to reduce the bandwidth consumption.  We  formulate  the  Cell  and  Technology  Selection  Problem  (CTSP) to  multicast  each  layer  of  a  video  stream  as  an  optimization problem.  We  use  Integer  Linear  Programming  to  model  the problem and show that the problem is NP-hard.  To  solve  the  problem,  we  propose  a  distributed  algorithm  based on  Lagrangean  relaxation  and  a  protocol  based  on  the  proposed algorithm. Our mechanism requires no change of the current video multicasting  mechanisms  and  the  current  wireless  network infrastructures.  Our  algorithm  is  adaptive  not  only  to  the  change  of  the subscribers  at  each layer, but also the change of the locations of each mobile host.

Index Terms

Multicast, layer-encoded video, heterogeneous wireless networks

DISTRIBUTED CACHE UPDATING FOR THE DYNAMIC SOURCE ROUTING PROTOCOL

ABSTRACT

On-demand  routing  protocols  use  route  caches  to  make  routing decisions. Due to mobility, cached routes easily become stale. To address  the  cache  staleness  issue,  prior  work  in  DSR  used heuristics  with  ad  hoc  parameters  to  predict  the  lifetime  of  a  link or  a  route.  However,  heuristics  cannot  accurately  estimate timeouts because topology changes are unpredictable.  In  this  paper,  we  propose  proactively  disseminating  the  broken link  information  to  the  nodes  that  have  that  link  in  their  caches. We define a new cache structure called a cache table and present a distributed cache update algorithm.  Each node maintains in its cache table the information necessary for  cache  updates.  When  a  link  failure  is  detected,  the  algorithm notifies  all  reachable  nodes  that  have  cached  the  link  in  a distributed  manner.  The  algorithm  does  not  use  any  ad  hoc parameters,  thus  making  route  caches  fully  adaptive  to  topology changes.  We  show  that  the  algorithm  outperforms  DSR  with  path  caches and  with  Link-MaxLife,  an  adaptive  timeout  mechanism  for  link caches.  We  conclude  that  proactive  cache  updating  is  key  to  the adaptation of on-demand routing protocols to mobility.

Index Terms

Mobile  ad  hoc  networks,  On-demand  routing  protocols,  Mobility,Distributed cache updating

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MOBILE COMPUTING, VOL. 6, NO. 5, MAY 200-

AN ACKNOWLEDGMENT-BASED APPROACH FOR THE DETECTION OF ROUTING MISBEHAVIOR IN MANETS

ABSTRACT

We  study  routing  misbehavior  in  MANETs  (Mobile  Ad  Hoc Networks) in this paper. In general, routing protocols for MANETs are designed based on the assumption that all participating nodes are fully cooperative. However, due to the open structure and scarcely available battery- based  energy,  node  misbehaviors  may  exist.  One  such  routing misbehavior is that some selfish nodes will participate in the route discovery  and  maintenance  processes  but  refuse  to  forward  data packets.  In  this  paper,  we  propose  the  2ACK  scheme  that  serves as  an  add-on  technique  for  routing  schemes  to  detect  routing misbehavior and to mitigate their adverse effect.  The  main  idea  of  the  2ACK  scheme  is  to  send  two-hop acknowledgment  packets  in  the  opposite  direction  of  the  routing path.  In  order  to  reduce  additional  routing  overhead,  only  a fraction  of  the  received  data  packets  are  acknowledged  in  the 2ACK scheme. Analytical  and  simulation  results  are  presented  to  evaluate  the performance of the proposed scheme.

Index Terms

Mobile  Ad  Hoc  Networks  (MANETs),  routing  misbehavior,  node misbehavior, network security, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR).


IMAGE TRANSFORMATION USING GRID

ABSTRACT

The  objective  of  this  paper  is  to  design  and  implement  an algorithm  to  transform  an  available  2D  image  into  a  3D  image. Since  the  available  algorithms  are  time  consuming  enhance  the efficiency, Grid computing has been used to implement the same.  Grid        computing         phenomenon      can       be         defined as         “A paradigm/infrastructure  that  enabling  the  sharing,  selection,  & aggregation of geographically distributed resources”. Images  captured  by  devices  such  as  digital  camera  are  generally of two dimensional in nature. But to analyze the images that too in engineering  applications  the  same  two-dimensional  image  if transformed  into  a  three-dimensional  image  without  appreciable data loss will be very useful and effective for analysis.  Conventionally  there  are  some  software  packages  available  for converting a 2D image to 3D image. In java graphics API (jdk 1.5) a package for 2D to 3D is there with defined methods for generating algorithms.  But  when  such  an  algorithm  is  being  designed  and developed it was found that it consumed much time for execution.So  a  new  approach  is  used  here  for  running  such  an  algorithm over  the  concept  of  grid.  To  illustrate  the  phenomenon  we  have developed software which transforms a two dimensional objects to three  dimensional  objects.  In  this  module,  Grid  computing  has been employed as a platform since it is a rapidly developing field.  Grid  computing  will  be  very  useful  in  projects  where  complexity and  time  factors  are  essential.  It  can  also  be  used  effectively  to improve the overall system efficiency.

Keywords:

Grid  service,  Event,  Object,  Heterogeneity,  Data  sets,  patterns, concept hierarchies, Load distribution

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON DEPENDABLE AND SECURE COMPUTING, VOL. 4, NO. 1, JANUARY-MARCH 2007

HYBRID INTRUSION DETECTION WITH WEIGHTED SIGNATURE GENERATION OVER ANOMALOUS INTERNET EPISODES

ABSTRACT

This  paper  reports  the  design  principles  and  evaluation  results  of  a new experimental hybrid intrusion detection system (HIDS). This hybrid system  combines  the  advantages  of  low  false-positive  rate  of signature-based  intrusion  detection  system  (IDS)  and  the  ability  of anomaly detection system (ADS) to detect novel unknown attacks.  By  mining  anomalous  traffic  episodes  from  Internet  connections,  we build  an  ADS  that  detects  anomalies  beyond  the  capabilities  of signature-based  SNORT  or  Bro  systems.  A  weighted  signature generation  scheme  is  developed  to  integrate  ADS  with  SNORT  by extracting signatures from anomalies detected.  HIDS  extracts  signatures  from  the  output  of  ADS  and  adds  them  into the  SNORT  signature  database  for  fast  and  accurate  intrusion detection. By testing our HIDS scheme over real-life Internet trace data mixed  with  10  days  of  Massachusetts  Institute  of  Technology/  Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL) attack data set, our experimental results show a 60 percent  detection  rate  of  the  HIDS,  compared  with  30  percent  and  22 percent in using the SNORT and Bro systems, respectively.  This  sharp  increase  in  detection  rate  is  obtained  with  less  than  3 percent  false  alarms.  The  signatures  generated  by  ADS  upgrade  the SNORT  performance  by  33  percent.  The  HIDS  approach  proves  the vitality  of  detecting  intrusions  and  anomalies,  simultaneously,  by automated  data  mining  and  signature  generation  over  Internet connection episodes.

Index Terms

Network  security,  intrusion  detection  systems,  anomaly  detection, signature  generation,  SNORT  and  Bro  systems,  false  alarms,  Internet episodes, traffic data mining.

SCALABLE MULTICASTING IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

Chao Gui and Prasant Mohapatra, Department of Computer Science, University of California, Davis

ABSTRACT

Many potential applications of Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) involve group communications among the nodes. Multicasting is an useful operation that facilitates group communications. Efficient and scalable multicast routing in MANETs is a difficult issue. In addition to the conventional multicast routing algorithms, recent protocols have adopted the following new approaches: overlays, backbone-based, and stateless. In this paper, we study these approaches from the protocol state management point of view, and compare their scalability behaviors. To enhance performance and enable scalability, we have proposed a framework for hierarchical multicasting in MANET environments. Two classes of hierarchical multicasting approaches, termed as domain-based and overlay-based, are proposed. We have considered a variety of approaches that are suitable for different mobility patterns and multicast group sizes. Results obtained through simulations demonstrate enhanced performance and scalability of the proposed techniques.

Index Terms

Hierarchical multicasting, Mobile Ad hoc networks, Domain-based multicasting, Overlay multicasting, Stateless multicasting, Scalability

APPLICATION OF BPCS STEGANOGRAPHY TO WAVELET COMPRESSED VIDEO

ABSTRACT

This  paper  presents  a  steganography  method  using  lossy compressed  video  which  provides  a  natural  way  to  send  a large  amount  of  secret  data.  The  proposed  method  is  based on  wavelet  compression  for  video  data  and  bit-plane complexity segmentation (BPCS) steganography.  In waveletbased video compression methods such as 3-D set partitioning  in  hierarchical  trees  (SPIHT)  algorithm  and Motion-  JPEG2000,  wavelet  coefficients  in  discrete  wavelet transformed video are quantized into a bit-plane structure and therefore  BPCS  steganography  can  be  applied  in  the  wavelet domain.  3-D SPIHT-BPCS steganography and Motion- JPEG2000-BPCS steganography  are  presented  and  tested,  which  are  the integration            of         3-D       SPIHT   video     coding   and       BPCS steganography,  and  that  of  Motion-JPEG2000  and  BPCS, respectively. Experimental results show that 3-D SPIHT-BPCS is superiorto Motion-JPEG2000-BPCS performance. with regard to embedding

ODAM: AN OPTIMIZED DISTRIBUTED ASSOCIATION RULE MINING ALGORITHM

ABSTRACT

Association  rule  mining  is  an  active  data  mining  research  area. However,  most  ARM  algorithms  cater  to  a  centralized  environment.  In contrast  to  previous  ARM  algorithms,  ODAM  is  a  distributed  algorithm for  geographically  distributed  data  sets  that  reduces  communication costs. Modern  organizations  are  geographically  distributed.  Typically,  each site locally stores its ever increasing amount of day-to-day data. Using centralized  data  mining  to  discover  useful  patterns  in  such organizations’  data  isn’t  always  feasible  because  merging  data  sets from  different  sites  into  a  centralized  site  incurs  huge  network communication costs.  Data  from  these  organizations  are  not  only  distributed  over  various locations  but  also  vertically  fragmented,  making  it  difficult  if  not impossible  to  combine  them  in  a  central  location.  Distributed  data mining has thus emerged as an active subarea of data mining research. A  significant  area  of  data  mining  research  is  association  rule  mining. Unfortunately,  most  ARM  algorithms  1-9  focus  on  a  sequential  or centralized environment where no external communication is required. Distributed  ARM  algorithms,  on  the  other  hand,  aim  to  generate  rules from different data sets spread over various geographical sites; hence, they require external communications throughout the entire process.  DARM algorithms must reduce communication costs so that generating global  association  rules  costs  less  than  combining  the  participating sites’ data sets into a centralized site. However,  most  DARM  algorithms  don’t  have  an  efficient  message optimization  technique,  so  they  exchange  numerous  messages  during the mining process. We have developed a distributed algorithm, called Optimized           Distributed Association    Mining, for geographically distributed  data  sets.  ODAM  generates  support  counts  of  candidate itemsets  quicker  than  other  DARM  algorithms  and  reduces  the  size  of average transactions, data sets, and message exchanges.

INCREMENTAL SERVICE DEPLOYMENT USING THE HOP BY HOP MULTICAST ROUTING PROTOCOL

ABSTRACT

IP Multicast is facing a slow take-off although it is a hotly debated topic since more than a decade. Many reasons are responsible for this status. Hence, the Internet is likely to be organized with both unicast and multicast enabled networks.  Thus, it is of utmost importance to design protocols that allow the progressive  deployment  of  the  multicast  service  by  supporting unicast  clouds.  This  paper  presents  HBH  (Hop-By-  Hop  multicast routing protocol).  HBH  adopts  the  source-specific  channel  abstraction  to  simplify address  allocation  and  implements  data  distribution  using recursive  unicast  trees,  which  allow  the  transparent  support  of unicast-only routers.  An  important  original  feature  of  HBH  is  its  tree  construction algorithm that takes into account the unicast routing asymmetries. Since  most  multicast  routing  protocols  rely  on  the  unicast infrastructure, the unicast asymmetries impact the structure of the multicast trees.  We show through simulation that HBH outperforms other multicast routing  protocols  in  terms  of  the  delay  experienced  by  the receivers and the bandwidth consumption of the multicast trees.  Additionally, we show that HBH can be incrementally deployed and that  with  a  small  fraction  of  HBH-enabled  routers  in  the  network HBH outperforms application-layer multicast.

Index Terms

Multicast, routing, service deployment

IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING VOL. 12, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2004

A DISTRIBUTED DATABASE ARCHITECTURE FOR GLOBAL ROAMING IN NEXT- GENERATION MOBILE NETWORKS

ABSTRACT

The next-generation mobile network will support terminal mobility, personal mobility, and service provider portability, making global roaming seamless. A location-independent  personal  telecommunication  number  (PTN)  scheme  is conducive to implementing such a global mobile system.  However, the nongeographic PTNs coupled with the anticipated large number of  mobile  users  in  future  mobile  networks  may  introduce  very  large centralized  databases.  This  necessitates  research  into  the  design  and performance  of  high-throughput  database  technologies  used  in  mobile systems  to  ensure  that  future  systems  will  be  able  to  carry  efficiently  the anticipated loads.  This  paper  proposes  a  scalable,  robust,  efficient  location  database architecture  based  on  the  location-  independent  PTNs.  The  proposed multitree  database  architecture  consists  of  a  number  of  database subsystems, each of which is a three-level tree structure and is connected to the others only through its root.  By  exploiting  the  localized  nature  of  calling  and  mobility  patterns,  the proposed  architecture  effectively  reduces the database loads as well as the signaling  traffic  incurred  by  the  location  registration  and  call  delivery procedures.  In  addition,  two  memory-resident  database  indices,  memory- resident  direct  file  and  T-tree,  are  proposed  for  the  location  databases  to further improve their throughput.  Analysis  model  and  numerical  results  are  presented  to  evaluate  the efficiency of the proposed database architecture. Results  have  revealed  that  the  proposed  database  architecture  for  location management can effectively support the anticipated high user density in the future mobile networks.

Index Terms

Database  architecture,  location  management,  location  tracking,  mobile networks.

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE – VOL. 27, NO. 3, MARCH 2005

FACE RECOGNITION USING LAPLACIANFACES

ABSTRACT

We propose an appearance-based face recognition method called the  Laplacianface  approach.  By  using  Locality  Preserving Projections  (LPP),  the  face  images  are  mapped  into  a  face subspace  for  analysis.  Different  from  Principal  Component Analysis  (PCA)  and  Linear  Discriminant  Analysis  (LDA)  which effectively  see  only  the  Euclidean  structure  of  face  space,  LPP finds  an  embedding that preserves local information, and obtains a  face  subspace  that  best  detects  the  essential  face  manifold structure.  The  Laplacianfaces  are  the  optimal  linear  approximations  to  the eigenfunctions  of  the  Laplace  Beltrami  operator  on  the  face manifold.  In  this  way,  the  unwanted  variations  resulting  from changes in lighting, facial expression, and pose may be eliminated or reduced.

Theoretical  analysis  shows  that  PCA,  LDA,  and  LPP  can  be obtained  from  different  graph  models.  We  compare  the  proposed Laplacianface  approach  with  Eigenface  and  Fisherface  methods on three different face data sets. Experimental results suggest that the         proposed           Laplacianface     approach           provides            a better representation and achieves lower error rates in face recognition.

Index Terms

Face recognition, principal component analysis, linear discriminant  analysis,  locality  preserving  projections,  face manifold, subspace learning.

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE, VOL. 26, NO. 1, JANUARY 2004

ONLINE HANDWRITTEN SCRIPT RECOGNITION

ABSTRACT

Automatic identification of handwritten script facilitates many important  applications  such  as  automatic  transcription  of multilingual documents and search for documents on the Web containing a particular script.  The  increase  in  usage  of  handheld  devices  which  accept handwritten  input  has  created  a  growing  demand  for algorithms           that       can   efficiently           analyze             and       retrieve handwritten data.  This  paper  proposes  a  method  to  classify  words  and  lines  in an  online  handwritten  document  into  one  of  the  six  major scripts: Arabic, Cyrillic, Devnagari, Han, Hebrew, or Roman.  The  classification  is  based  on  11  different  spatial  and temporal features extracted from the strokes of the words. The proposed system attains an overall classification accuracy of 8-.1 percent at the word level with 5-fold cross validation on a data set containing 13,379 words.  The  classification  accuracy  improves  to  95  percent  as  the number of words in the test sample is increased to five, and to 95.5  percent  for  complete  text  lines  consisting  of  an  average of seven words.

Index Terms

Document  understanding,  handwritten  script  identification, online document, evidence accumulation, feature design.

LOCATION-AIDED ROUTING (LAR) IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

ABSTRACT

A mobile ad hoc network consists of wireless hosts that may move often. Movement of hosts results in a change in routes, requiring  some  mechanism  for  determining  new  routes. Several  routing  protocols  have  already  been  proposed  for  ad hoc networks.  This  paper  suggests  an  approach  to  utilize  location information  (for  instance,  obtained  using  the  global positioning  system)  to  improve  performance  of  routing protocols for ad hoc networks. By  using  location  information,  the  proposed  Location-Aided Routing  (LAR)  protocols  limit  the  search  for  a  new  route  to  a smaller “request zone” of the ad hoc network.  This results in a significant reduction in the number of routing messages.  We  present  two  algorithms  to  determine  the request zone, and also suggest potential optimizations to our algorithms

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON FUZZY SYSTEMS, VOL. 11, NO. 4, AUGUST 2003

NOISE REDUCTION BY FUZZY IMAGE FILTERING

ABSTRACT

A  new  fuzzy  filter  is  presented  for  the  noise  reduction  of  images corrupted  with  additive  noise.  The  filter  consists  of  two  stages. The  first  stage  computes  a  fuzzy  derivative  for  eight  different directions.  The  second  stage  uses  these  fuzzy  derivatives  to  perform  fuzzy smoothing  by  weighting  the  contributions  of  neighboring  pixel values.  Both  stages  are  based  on  fuzzy  rules  which  make  use  of membership  functions.  The  filter  can  be  applied  iteratively  to effectively reduce heavy noise.  In  particular,  the  shape  of  the  membership  functions  is  adapted according to the remaining noise level after each iteration, making use of the distribution of the homogeneity in the image. Astatistical model for the noise distribution can be incorporated to relate  the  homogeneity  to  the  adaptation  scheme  of  the membership functions. Experimental results are obtained to show the feasibility of the proposed approach.  These  results  are  also  compared  to  other  filters  by  numerical measures and visual inspection.

Index Terms

Additive  noise,  edge  preserving  filtering,  fuzzy  image  filtering, noise reduction.

ITP: AN IMAGE TRANSPORT PROTOCOL  FOR THE INTERNET

ABSTRACT

Images  account  for  a  significant  and  growing  fraction  of  Web downloads. The traditional approach to transporting images uses TCP, which  provides  a  generic  reliable  in-order  bytestream  abstraction,  but which is overly restrictive for image data.  We  analyze  the  progression  of  image  quality  at  the  receiver  with  time, and  show  that  the  in-order  delivery  abstraction  provided  by  a  TCP- based approach prevents the receiver application from processing and rendering portions of an image when they actually arrive. The end result is that an image is rendered in bursts interspersed with long  idle  times  rather  than  smoothly. This paper describes the design, implementation, and evaluation of the image transport protocol (ITP) for image transmission over loss-prone congested or wireless networks.  ITP  improves  user-perceived  latency  using  application-level  framing (ALF)  and  out-of  order  application  data  unit  (ADU)  delivery,  achieving significantly  better  interactive  performance  as  measured  by  the evolution of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) with time at the receiver.  ITP  runs  over  UDP,  incorporates  receiver-driven  selective  reliability, uses the congestion manager (CM) to adapt to network congestion, and is customizable for specific image formats (e.g., JPEG and JPEG2000). ITP enables a variety of new receiver post-processing algorithms such as  error  concealment  that  further  improve  the  interactivity  and responsiveness of reconstructed images.  Performance experiments using our implementation across a variety of loss  conditions  demonstrate  the  benefits  of  ITP  in  improving  the interactivity of image downloads at the receiver.

Index Terms

Computer  networks,  congestion  control,  Internetworking,  network adaptation, selective reliability, transport protocols.

IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING VOL. 16, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2008

EFFICIENT ROUTING IN INTERMITTENTLY CONNECTED MOBILE NETWORKS: THE MULTIPLE-COPY CASE

ABSTRACT

Intermittently connected mobile networks are wireless networks where most of  the  time  there  does  not  exist  a  complete  path  from  the  source  to  the destination.  There  are  many  real  networks  that  follow  this  model,  for example,  wildlife  tracking  sensor  networks,  military  networks,  vehicular  ad hoc networks, etc.  In  this  context,  conventional  routing  schemes  fail,  because  they  try  to establish  complete  end-to-end  paths,  before  any  data  is  sent.  To  deal  with such  networks  researchers  have  suggested  to  use  flooding-based  routing schemes.  While flooding-based schemes have a high probability of delivery, they waste a  lot  of  energy  and  suffer  from  severe  contention  which  can  significantly degrade  their  performance.  Furthermore,  proposed  efforts  to  reduce  the overhead  of  flooding-based  schemes  have  often  been  plagued  by  large delays.  With this in mind, we introduce a new family of routing schemes that “spray” a  few  message  copies  into  the  network,  and  then  route  each  copy independently towards the destination.  We  show  that,  if  carefully  designed,  spray  routing  not  only  performs significantly  fewer  transmissions  per  message,  but  also  has  lower  average delivery delays than existing schemes; furthermore, it is highly scalable and retains good performance under a large range of scenarios. Finally,  we  use  our  theoretical  framework  proposed  in  our  2004  paper  to analyze  the  performance  of  spray  routing.We  also  use  this  theory  to  show how  to  choose  the  number  of  copies  to  be  sprayed  and  how  to  optimally distribute these copies to relays.

Index Terms

Ad hoc networks, delay tolerant networks, intermittent connectivity, routing

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS, VOL. 18, NO. 4, APRIL 2007

A FULLY DISTRIBUTED PROACTIVELY SECURE THRESHOLD-MULTISIGNATURE SCHEME

ABSTRACT

Threshold-multisignature  schemes  combine  the  properties  of  threshold group-oriented  signature  schemes  and  multisignature  schemes  to  yield  a signature  scheme  that  allows  a  threshold  or  more  group  members  to collaboratively sign an arbitrary message.  In  contrast  to  threshold  group  signatures,  the  individual  signers  do  not remain  anonymous,  but  are  publicly  identifiable  from  the  information contained  in  the  valid  threshold-multisignature.  The  main  objective  of  this paper  is  to  propose  such  a  secure  and  efficient  threshold-multisignature scheme.  The  paper  uniquely  defines  the  fundamental  properties  of  threshold multisignature schemes and shows that the proposed scheme satisfies these properties  and  eliminates  the  latest  attacks  to  which  other  similar  schemes are subject. The efficiency of the proposed scheme is analyzed and shown to be superior to its counterparts. The  paper  also  proposes  a  discrete  logarithm  based  distributed-key management  infrastructure  (DKMI),  which  consists  of  a  round  optimal, publicly  verifiable,  distributed-key  generation  (DKG)  protocol  and  a  one round,  publicly  verifiable,  distributed-key  redistribution/updating  (DKRU) protocol.  The  round  optimal  DKRU  protocol  solves  a  major  problem  with  existing secret  redistribution/updating  schemes  by  giving  group  members  a mechanism  to  identify  malicious  or  faulty  share  holders  in  the  first  round, thus avoiding multiple protocol executions.

Index Terms

Security  and  protection,  distributed  systems,  group-oriented  cryptography, threshold-multisignature,  secret  sharing,  distributed-key  management infrastructure,  publicly  verifiable  distributed-key  generation,  publicly verifiable   distributed-key   update,             publicly verifiable distributed-key redistribution

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS, VOL. 18, NO. 3, MARCH 2007

A NEW OPERATIONAL TRANSFORMATION FRAMEWORK FOR REAL-TIME GROUP EDITORS

ABSTRACT

Group editors allow a group of distributed human users to edit a  shared  multimedia  document  at  the  same  time  over  a computer  network.  Consistency  control  in  this  environment must  not  only  guarantee  convergence  of  replicated  data,  but also attempt to preserve intentions of operations.  Operational  transformation  (OT)  is  a  well-established  method for  optimistic  consistency  control  in  this  context  and  has drawn  continuing  research  attention  since  1989.  However, counterexamples to previous works have often been identified despite  the  significant  progress  made  on  this  topic  over  the past 15 years.  This  paper  analyzes  the  root  of  correctness  problems  in  OT and establishes a novel operational transformation framework for developing OT algorithms and proving their correctness.

Index Terms

Consistency  control,  group  editors,  groupware,  operational transformation

ADAPTED ONE-VERSUS-ALL DECISION TREES FOR DATA STREAM CLASSIFICATION

Hashemi, S.   Ying Yang   Mirzamomen, Z.   Kangavari, M., Monash Univ., Clayton, VIC

This paper appears in: Knowledge and Data Engineering, IEEE Transactions on Publication Date: May 2009, Volume: 21, Issue: 5, On page(s): 624-637, ISSN: 1041-4347, INSPEC Accession Number: 10520351,Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/TKDE.2008.181, First Published: 2008-08-29

Current Version Published: 2009-03-24

ABSTRACT

One versus all (OVA) decision trees learn k individual binary classifiers, each one to distinguish the instances of a single class from the instances of all other classes. Thus OVA is different from existing data stream classification schemes whose majority use multiclass classifiers, each one to discriminate among all the classes. This paper advocates some outstanding advantages of OVA for data stream classification. First, there is low error correlation and hence high diversity among OVA’s component classifiers, which leads to high classification accuracy. Second, OVA is adept at accommodating new class labels that often appear in data streams. However, there also remain many challenges to deploy traditional OVA for classifying data streams. First, as every instance is fed to all component classifiers, OVA is known as an inefficient model. Second, OVA’s classification accuracy is adversely affected by the imbalanced class distribution in data streams. This paper addresses those key challenges and consequently proposes a new OVA scheme that is adapted for data stream classification. Theoretical analysis and empirical evidence reveal that the adapted OVA can offer faster training, faster updating and higher classification accuracy than many existing popular data stream classification algorithms.


BAYES VECTOR QUANTIZER FOR CLASS-IMBALANCE PROBLEM

Diamantini, C.   Potena, D., Dipt. di Ing. Inf., Gestionale e dell’Autom., Universitd Politec. delle Marche, Ancona

This paper appears in: Knowledge and Data Engineering, IEEE Transactions on Publication Date: May 2009, Volume: 21, Issue: 5, On page(s): 638-651, ISSN: 1041-4347,

INSPEC Accession Number: 10520352, Current Version Published: 2009-03-24,

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/TKDE.2008.187, First Published: 2008-09-12

ABSTRACT

The class-imbalance problem is the problem of learning a classification rule from data that are skewed in favor of one class. On these datasets traditional learning techniques tend to overlook the less numerous class, at the advantage of the majority class. However, the minority class is often the most interesting one for the task at hand. For this reason, the class-imbalance problem has received increasing attention in the last few years. In the present paper we point the attention of the reader to a learning algorithm for the minimization of the average misclassification risk. In contrast to some popular class-imbalance learning methods, this method has its roots in statistical decision theory. A particular interesting characteristic is that when class distributions are unknown, the method can work by resorting to stochastic gradient algorithm. We study the behavior of this algorithm on imbalanced datasets, demonstrating that this principled approach allows obtaining better classification performances compared to the principal methods proposed in the literature.


CATCHING THE TREND: A FRAMEWORK FOR CLUSTERING CONCEPT-DRIFTING CATEGORICAL DATA

Hung-Leng Chen   Ming-Syan Chen   Su-Chen Lin, Dept. of Electr. Eng., Nat. Taiwan Univ., Taipei

This paper appears in: Knowledge and Data Engineering, IEEE Transactions on Publication Date: May 2009, Volume: 21, Issue: 5, On page(s): 652-665,

ISSN: 1041-4347, INSPEC Accession Number: 10520353, Current Version Published: 2009-03-24,

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/TKDE.2008.192, First Published: 2008-09-19

ABSTRACT

Sampling has been recognized as an important technique to improve the efficiency of clustering. However, with sampling applied, those points that are not sampled will not have their labels after the normal process. Although there is a straightforward approach in the numerical domain, the problem of how to allocate those unlabeled data points into proper clusters remains as a challenging issue in the categorical domain. In this paper, a mechanism named MAximal Resemblance Data Labeling (abbreviated as MARDL) is proposed to allocate each unlabeled data point into the corresponding appropriate cluster based on the novel categorical clustering representative, namely, N-Nodeset Importance Representative (abbreviated as NNIR), which represents clusters by the importance of the combinations of attribute values. MARDL has two advantages: (1) MARDL exhibits high execution efficiency, and (2) MARDL can achieve high intracluster similarity and low intercluster similarity, which are regarded as the most important properties of clusters, thus benefiting the analysis of cluster behaviors. MARDL is empirically validated on real and synthetic data sets and is shown to be significantly more efficient than prior works while attaining results of high quality.


GRIDVIDEO: A PRACTICAL EXAMPLE OF NONSCIENTIFIC APPLICATION ON THE GRID

Bruneo, D.   Iellamo, G.   Minutoli, G.   Puliafito, A., Dept. of Math., Univ. of Messina, Messina

This paper appears in: Knowledge and Data Engineering, IEEE Transactions on Publication Date: May 2009, Volume: 21, Issue: 5, On page(s): 666-680, ISSN: 1041-4347, INSPEC Accession Number: 10520354, Current Version Published: 2009-03-24,

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/TKDE.2008.191, First Published: 2008-09-19.

ABSTRACT

Starting from 1990s and until now, Grid computing has been mainly used in scientific laboratories. Only in the last few years, it is evolving into a business-innovating technology that is driving commercial adoption. In this paper, we describe GridVideo, a Grid-based multimedia application for the distributed tailoring and streaming of media files. The objective is to show, starting from a real experience, how Grid technologies can be used for the development of nonscientific applications. Relevant performance aspects are analyzed, regarding both user-oriented (in terms of responsiveness) and provider-oriented (in terms of system efficiency) requirements. Different multimedia data dissemination strategies have been analyzed and an innovative technique, based on the Fibonacci series, is proposed. To respond to the stringent quality-of-service (QoS) requirements, typical of soft real-time applications, a reservation-based architecture is presented. Such architecture is able to manage the Grid resource allocation, thus enabling the provisioning of advanced services with different QoS levels. Technical and practical problems encountered during the development are discussed, and a thorough performance evaluation of the developed prototype is presented.


HIERARCHICALLY DISTRIBUTED PEER-TO-PEER DOCUMENT CLUSTERING AND CLUSTER SUMMARIZATION

Hammouda, K.M.   Kamel, M.S., Desire2Learn Inc., Kitchener, ON

This paper appears in: Knowledge and Data Engineering, IEEE Transactions on Publication Date: May 2009, Volume: 21, Issue: 5, On page(s): 681-698, ISSN: 1041-4347,

INSPEC Accession Number: 10520355, Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/TKDE.2008.189,

First Published: 2008-09-19, Current Version Published: 2009-03-24

ABSTRACT

In distributed data mining, adopting a flat node distribution model can affect scalability. To address the problem of modularity, flexibility and scalability, we propose a Hierarchically-distributed Peer-to-Peer (HP2PC) architecture and clustering algorithm. The architecture is based on a multi-layer overlay network of peer neighborhoods. Supernodes, which act as representatives of neighborhoods, are recursively grouped to form higher level neighborhoods. Within a certain level of the hierarchy, peers cooperate within their respective neighborhoods to perform P2P clustering. Using this model, we can partition the clustering problem in a modular way across neighborhoods, solve each part individually using a distributed K-means variant, then successively combine clusterings up the hierarchy where increasingly more global solutions are computed. In addition, for document clustering applications, we summarize the distributed document clusters using a distributed keyphrase extraction algorithm, thus providing interpretation of the clusters. Results show decent speedup, reaching 165 times faster than centralized clustering for a 250-node simulated network, with comparable clustering quality to the centralized approach. We also provide comparisontotheP2PK-meansalgorithmandthat HP2PC accuracy is better for typical hierarchy heights. Results for distributed cluster summarization match those of their centralized counterparts with up to 88% accuracy.

EXACT KNOWLEDGE HIDING THROUGH DATABASE EXTENSION

Gkoulalas-Divanis, A.   Verykios, V.S., Dept. of Comput. & Commun. Eng., Univ. of Thessaly, Volos;

This paper appears in: Knowledge and Data Engineering, IEEE Transactions on Publication Date: May 2009, Volume: 21, Issue: 5, On page(s): 699-713, ISSN: 1041-4347,

INSPEC Accession Number: 10520356, Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/TKDE.2008.199,

First Published: 2008-09-26, Current Version Published: 2009-03-24

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we propose a novel, exact border-based approach that provides an optimal solution for the hiding of sensitive frequent itemsets by

(i)                  minimally extending the original database by a synthetically generated database part – the database extension,

(ii)                formulating the creation of the database extension as a constraint satisfaction problem,

(iii)               mapping the constraint satisfaction problem to an equivalent binary integer programming problem,

(iv)               exploiting underutilized synthetic transactions to proportionally increase the support of non-sensitive itemsets,

(v)                minimally relaxing the constraint satisfaction problem to provide an approximate solution close to the optimal one when an ideal solution does not exist, and (vi) by using a partitioning in the universe of the items to increase the efficiency of the proposed hiding algorithm.

Extending the original database for sensitive itemset hiding is proved to provide optimal solutions to an

extended set of hiding problems compared to previous approaches and to provide solutions of higher quality. Moreover, the application of binary integer programming enables the simultaneous hiding of the sensitive itemsets and thus allows for the identification of globally optimal solutions.

GLIP: A CONCURRENCY CONTROL PROTOCOL FOR CLIPPING INDEXING

Chang-Tien Lu   Jing Dai   Ying Jin   Mathuria, J., Dept. of Comput. Sci., Virginia Tech., Falls Church, VA

This paper appears in: Knowledge and Data Engineering, IEEE Transactions on Publication Date: May 2009, Volume: 21, Issue: 5, On page(s): 714-728, ISSN: 1041-4347,

INSPEC Accession Number: 10520357, Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/TKDE.2008.183,

First Published: 2008-09-12, Current Version Published: 2009-03-24

ABSTRACT

Multidimensional databases are beginning to be used in a wide range of applications. To meet this fast-growing demand, the R-tree family is being applied to support fast access to multidimensional data, for which the R+-tree exhibits outstanding search performance. In order to support efficient concurrent access in multiuser environments, concurrency control mechanisms for multidimensional indexing have been proposed. However, these mechanisms cannot be directly applied to the R+-tree because an object in the R+-tree may be indexed in multiple leaves. This paper proposes a concurrency control protocol for R-tree variants with object clipping, namely, Granular Locking for clipping indexing (GLIP). GLIP is the first concurrency control approach specifically designed for the R+- tree and its variants, and it supports efficient concurrent operations with serializable isolation, consistency, and deadlock-free. Experimental tests on both real and synthetic data sets validated the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed concurrent access framework.

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