IEEE XPLORE PROJECT’S ABSTRACT 1

SECURITY IN LARGE NETWORKS USING MEDIATOR PROTOCOLS

ABSTRACT:

The combination of 3AQKDP (implicit) and 3AQKDPMA (explicit) quantum cryptography is used to provide authenticated secure communication between sender and receiver. In quantum cryptography, quantum key distribution protocols (QKDPs) employ quantum mechanisms to distribute session keys and public discussions to check for eavesdroppers and verify the correctness of a session key. However, public discussions require additional communication rounds between a sender and receiver. The advantage of quantum cryptography easily resists replay and passive attacks. A 3AQKDP with implicit user authentication, which ensures that confidentiality, is only possible for legitimate users and mutual authentication is achieved only after secure communication using the session key start.

In implicit quantum key distribution protocol (3AQKDP) have two phases such as setup phase and distribution phase to provide three party authentication with secure session key distribution.  In this system there is no mutual understanding between sender and receiver. Both sender and receiver should communicate over trusted center.

In explicit quantum key distribution protocol (3AQKDPMA) have two phases such as setup phase and distribution phase to provide three party authentications with secure session key distribution.  I have mutual understanding between sender and receiver. Both sender and receiver should communicate directly with authentication of trusted center.

Disadvantage of separate process 3AQKDP and 3AQKDPMA were provide the authentication only for message, to identify the security threads in the message. Not identify the security threads in the session key.

TRUSTWORTHY COMPUTING UNDER RESOURCE CONSTRAINTS WITH THE DOWN POLICY

ABSTRACT

Trustworthy computing modules like secure coprocessors (ScP) are already in extensive use today, albeit limited predominantly to scenarios where constraints on cost is not a serious limiting factor. However, inexpensive trustworthy computers are required for many evolving application scenarios. The problem of realizing inexpensive ScPs for large-scale networks consisting of lowcomplexity devices have not received adequate consideration thus far. We introduce two strategies toward realizing low-cost ScPs. The first is the decrypt only when necessary (DOWN) policy, which can substantially improve the ability of low-cost ScPs to protect their secrets. The DOWN policy relies on the ability to operate with fractional parts of secrets. Taking full advantage of the DOWN policy requires consideration of the nature of computations performed with secrets and even the mechanisms employed for distribution of secrets. We discuss the feasibility of extending the DOWN policy to various asymmetric and symmetric cryptographic primitives. The

second is cryptographic authentication strategies which employ only symmetric cryptographic primitives, based on novel ID-based key predistribution schemes that demand very low complexity of operations to be performed by the ScP and can take good advantage of the DOWN policy.

Index Terms

Trustworthy computing, read-proofing, key predistribution.

TEMPORAL PORTIONING OF COMMUNICATION RESOURCES IN AN INTEGRATED ARCHITECTURE

ABSTRACT

Integrated architectures in the automotive and avionic domain promise improved resource utilization and enable a better coordination of application subsystems compared to federated systems. An integrated architecture shares the system’s communication resources by using a single physical network for exchanging messages of multiple application subsystems. Similarly, the computational resources (for example, memory and CPU time) of each node computer are available to multiple software components. In order to support a seamless system integration without unintended side effects in such an integrated architecture, it is important to ensure that the software components do not interfere through the use of these shared resources. For this reason, the DECOS integrated architecture encapsulates application subsystems and their constituting software components. At the level of the communication system, virtual networks on top of an underlying time-triggered physical network exhibit predefined temporal properties (that is, bandwidth, latency, and latency jitter). Due to encapsulation, the temporal properties of messages sent by a software component are independent from the behavior of other software components, in particular from those within other application subsystems. This paper presents the mechanisms for the temporal partitioning of communication resources in the Dependable Embedded Components and Systems (DECOS) integrated architecture. Furthermore, experimental evidence is provided in order to demonstrate that the messages sent by one software component do not affect the temporal properties of messages exchanged by other software components.  Rigid temporal partitioning is achievable while at the same time meeting the performance requirements imposed by present-day automotive applications and those envisioned for the future (for example, X-by-wire). For this purpose, we use an experimental framework with an implementation of virtual networks on top of a Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)-controlled Ethernet network.

Index Terms

System architectures, real-time and embedded systems, system integration and implementation, fault tolerance, computer network performance, distributed architectures, infrastructure protection.


ESTIMATION OF DEFECTS BASED ON DEFECT DECAY MODEL ED3M

ABSTRACT

An accurate prediction of the number of defects in a software product during system testing  contributes not only to the management of the system testing process but also to the estimation of the product’s required maintenance. Here, a new approach, called Estimation of Defects based on Defect Decay Model (ED3M) is presented that computes an estimate of the total number of defects in an ongoing testing process. ED3M is based on estimation theory. Unlike many existing approaches, the technique presented here does not depend on historical data from previous projects or any assumptions about the requirements and/or testers’ productivity. It is a completely automated approach that relies only on the data collected during an ongoing testing process. This is a key advantage of the ED3M approach as it makes it widely applicable in different testing environments. Here, the ED3M approach has been evaluated using five data sets from large industrial projects and two data sets from the literature. In addition, a performance analysis has been conducted using simulated data sets to explore its behavior using different models for the input data. The results are very promising; they indicate the ED3M approach provides accurate estimates with as fast or better convergence time in comparison to well-known alternative techniques, while only using defect data as the input.

Index Terms

Defect prediction, system testing, estimation theory, maximum likelihood estimator.


MOBILE AGENTS IN A DISTRIBUTED MULTIMEDIA DATABASE SYSTEM – IEEE APPROACH

ABSTRACT

The size of networks is increasing rapidly and this fact is not straitened to the internet alone. Many intra and inter–organization networks are affected by this trend, too. A side effect of this growth is the increase of nework traffic. This development leads to new challenges and we have to think about new technologies. Mobile agent systems are one answer to these challenges. Mobile agents are an emerging technology attracting interest from the fields of distributed systems, information retrieval, electronic commerce and artificial intelligence. A mobile agent is an executing program that can migrate during execution from machine to machine in a heterogeneous network. On each machine, the agent interacts with stationary service agents and other resources to accomplish its task, returning to its home site with a final result when that task is finished. Mobile agents are particularly attractive in distributed information-retrieval applications. By moving to the location of an information resource, the agent can search the resource locally, eliminating the transfer of intermediate results across the network and reducing end-to-end latency. Mobile agents are goal-oriented, can communicate with other agents, and can continue to operate even after the machine that launched them has been removed from the network. The mobile feature enables the agent to travel to the host where the data are physically stored. This is obviously of great interest in a distributed multimedia database systems where we have in most cases large binary objects. This Project integrates mobile agent technology in a distributed database system. The advantage of this approach is the combination of mobile agent features (e.g. autonomy, mobility, enhancement of functionality) and database services such as recovery, transaction handling, concurrency and security. This projects aims at facilitating storage and retrieval of multimedia data from the distributed multimedia database using mobile agents based on host database which will provide the result to the user upon request.

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF RMI – LATENCY, ROUND TRIP TIME & PACKETS PER UNIT TIME – IEEE

ABSTRACT

With the explosive growth of internet and network services, there is always a proliferation for distributed application that seek to leverage the power of the internet. Remote method invocation

is now increasingly being used in  Internet based applications and hence it is important to study the performance parameters of RMI. RMI is the action of invoking a method of a remote interface on a remote object.

The three methods of RMI namely General, Activation and Custom Socket Factory are to be evaluated empirically using parameters like Round trip time, Latency and Packets per Unit time. The graph plotted allows us to gain an insight into the performance aspects and other tradeoffs of RMI. The General method deals with invoking any method directly from memory of the remote machine. RMI Activation allows passive objects to be brought into the active state by instantiating it on an as needed basis. Custom socket factory method allows customization of socket depending on the type and amount of data to be transferred over the channel. It is proposed to implement security for the data being transferred using Rijndael Algorithm that imparts security due to its high resistance to attacks, code compactness and design simplicity. Search mechanism is also to be implemented in the GUI, which has user-friendly access to the three methods of RMI and displays the results of the evaluation.


PUBLIC KEY VALIDATION FOR DNS SECURITY EXTENSIONS – DOMAIN NAMING SERVER

ABSTRACT

The mapping or binding of IP addresses to host names became a major problem in the rapidly growing Internet and the higher level binding effort went through different stages of development up to the currently used Domain Name System (DNS).

The DNS Security is designed to provide security by combining the concept of both the Digital Signature and Asymmetric key (Public key) Cryptography. Here the Public key is send instead of Private key. The DNS security uses Message Digest Algorithm to compress the Message(text file) and PRNG(Pseudo Random Number Generator) Algorithm for generating Public and Private key. The message combines with the Private key to form a Signature using DSA Algorithm, which is send along with the Public key.

The receiver uses the Public key and DSA Algorithm to form a Signature. If this Signature matches with the Signature of the message received, the message is Decrypted and read else discarded.


XTC: A PRACTICAL TOPOLOGY CONTROL ALGORITHM FOR AD-HOC NETWORKS

ABSTRACT

The system entitled Scalable Adhoc network simulation uses XTC Algorithm for reducing the network density and for ensuring confirmed data transmission with reduced energy consumption based on rank creation for each node in the network. Finally the data is transmitted to the destined node by establishment and removal of connection based on the ranking.

For two communicating ad-hoc nodes u and v, the energy consumption of their communication grows at least quadratically with their distance. Having one or more relay nodes between u and v therefore helps to save energy. The main purpose of a topology control algorithm is to abandon long distance communication links and instead route a message over small (energy-efficient) hops .For this purpose each node in the ad-hoc network chooses a ”handful” of ”close by” neighbors” in all points of the compass. Clearly nodes cannot abandon links to”too many” far-away neighbors in order to prevent the ad-hoc network from being partitioned or the routing paths from becoming noncompetitively long. The advantage of this network node that provides services for any other node will be considered ad servers, thereby reducing the network density with confirmed data transmission.


XML (EXTENSIBLE MARKUP LANGUAGE) ENABLED SQL FOR STORING & RETRIEVING DATA  SELECTIVE ENCRYPTION

ABSTRACT

In some applications, it is relevant to hide the content of a message when it enters an insecure channel. The accepted view among professional cryptographers is that the encryption algorithm should be published, whereas the key must be kept secret.  In the field of image cryptography, the focus has been put on steganography, and in particular on watermarking during the last years.  Watermarking, as opposed to steganography, has the additional requirement of robustness against possible image transformations. Watermarks are usually made invisible and should not be detectable.  In applications requiring transmission the image is first compressed, because it saves bandwidth. Then the image is encrypted.  There is a need for a technique called selective encryption of compressed images with messages. Initially it aims of image encryption and various methods. Usually, during encryption, all the information is encrypted. But this is not mandatory, only a part of the image content will encrypted with messages in order to be able to visualize the encrypted Images, although not with full precision. This concept leads to techniques that can simultaneously provide security functions and an overall visual check which might be suitable in some applications like searching through a shared image database, distributed database for image storage etc., the principle of selective encryption is first applied to compressed images with messages. This technique is proven not to interfere with the de-coding process in the sense that it achieves a constant bit rate and that bit streams remain compliant to the JPEG specifications.

MITIGATION OF CONTROL CHANNEL JAMMING UNDER NODE CAPTURE ATTACKS.

ABSTRACT

Availability of service in many wireless networks depends on the ability for network users to establish and maintain communication channels using control messages from base stations and other users. An adversary with knowledge of the underlying communication protocol can mount an efficient denial of service attack by jamming the communication channels used to exchange control messages. The use of spread spectrum techniques can deter an external adversary from such control channel jamming attacks. However, malicious colluding insiders or an adversary who captures or compromises syste m users is not deterred by spread spectrum, as they know the required spreading sequences. For the case of internal adversaries, we propose a framework for control channel access schemes using the random assignment of cryptographic keys to hide the location of control channels. We propose and evaluate metrics to quantify the probabilistic availability of service under control channel jamming by malicious or compromised users and show that the availability of service degrades gracefully as the number of colluding insiders or compromised users increases. We propose an algorithm called GUIDE for the identification of compromised users in the system based on the set of control channels that are jammed. We evaluate the estimation error using the GUIDE algorithm in terms of the false alarm and miss rates in the identification problem. We discuss various design trade-offs between robustness to control channel jamming and resource expenditure.

Index Terms

Wireless multiple access, control channel jamming, security, node capture attacks, probabilistic metrics.

EXPLICIT LOAD BALANCING TECHNIQUE FOR NGEO SATELLITE IP NETWORKS WITH ON-BOARD PROCESSING CAPABILITIES

ABSTRACT

Non-geostationary (NGEO) satellite communication systems offer an array of advantages over their terrestrial and geostationary counterparts. They are seen as an integral part of nextgeneration ubiquitous communication systems. Given the non-uniform distribution of users in satellite footprints, due to several geographical and/or climatic constraints, some Inter-Satellite Links (ISLs) are expected to be heavily loaded with data packets while others remain underutilized. Such scenario obviously leads to congestion of the heavily loaded links. It ultimately results in buffer overflows, higher queuing delays, and significant packet drops.

To guarantee a better distribution of traffic among satellites, this paper proposes an explicit exchange of information on congestion status among neighboring satellites. Indeed, a satellite notifies its congestion status to its neighboring satellites. When it is about to get congested, it requests its neighboring satellites to decrease their data forwarding rates by sending them a self status notification signaling message. In response, the neighboring satellites search for less congested paths that do not include the satellite in question and communicate a portion of data, primarily destined to the satellite, via the retrieved paths. This operation avoids both congestion and packet drops at the satellite. It also ensures a better distribution of traffic over the entire satellite constellation. The proposed scheme is dubbed “Explicit Load Balancing” (ELB) scheme.

While the multi-path routing concept of ELB has many advantages, it may lead to persistent packet reordering. In case of connection- oriented protocols, this phenomenon results in unnecessary shrinkage of the data transmission rate. A solution to this issue is also incorporated in the design of ELB. The interactions of ELB with mechanisms that provide different QoS by differentiating traffic (e.g., Differentiated Services) are also discussed. The good performance of ELB, in terms of better traffic distribution, higher throughput, and lower packet drops, is verified via a set of simulations using the Network Simulator (NS).

Index Terms

Congestion alleviation, load balancing, NGEO satellite network, routing, traffic engineering.


ENFORCING MINIMUM-COST MULTICAST ROUTINGAGAINST SELFISH INFORMATION FLOWS.

ABSTRACT

We study multicast in a noncooperative environment where information flows selfishly route themselves through the cheapest paths available. The main challenge is to enforce such selfish multicast flows to stabilize at a socially optimal operating point incurring minimum total edge cost, through appropriate cost allocation and other economic measures, with replicable and encodable properties of information flows considered. We show that known cost allocation schemes are not sufficient. We provide a shadow-price-based cost allocation for networks without capacity limits and show that it enforces minimum-cost multicast. This improves previous result where a 2-approximate multicast flow is enforced. For capacitated networks, computing cost allocation by ignoring edge capacities will not yield correct results. We show that an edge tax scheme can be combined with a cost allocation to strictly enforce optimal multicast flows in this more realistic case. If taxes are not desirable, they can be returned to flows while maintaining weak enforcement of the optimal flow. We relate the taxes toVCGpayment schemes and discuss an efficient primal-dual algorithm that simultaneously computes the taxes, the cost allocation, and the optimal multicast flow, with potential of fully distributed implementations.

Index Terms

Communication/networking, multicast, graph algorithms.


SIMPS: USING SOCIOLOGY FOR PERSONAL MOBILITY.

ABSTRACT

Assessing mobility in a thorough fashion is a crucial step toward more efficient mobile network design. Recent research on mobility has focused on two main points: analyzing models and studying their impact on data transport. These works investigate the consequences of mobility. In this paper, instead, we focus on the causes of mobility. Starting from established research in sociology, we propose SIMPS, a mobility model of human crowds with pedestrian motion. This model defines a process called sociostation, rendered by two complimentary behaviors, namely socialize and isolate, that regulate an individual with regard to her/his own sociability level. SIMPS leads to results that agree with scaling laws observed both in small-scale and large-scale human motion. Although our model defines only two simple individual behaviors, we observe many emerging collective behaviors (group formation/splitting, path formation, and evolution).

Index Terms

Mobility modeling, self-organized networks, social networks, sociology.


SPATIO-TEMPORAL NETWORK ANOMALY DETECTION BY ASSESSING DEVIATIONS OF EMPIRICAL MEASURES.

ABSTRACT

We introduce an Internet traffic anomaly detection mechanism based on large deviations results for empirical measures. Using past traffic traces we characterize network traffic during various time-of-day intervals, assuming that it is anomaly-free.We present two different approaches to characterize traffic:

  1. I.      a model-free approach based on the method of types and Sanov’s theorem, and
  2. II.      a model-based approach modeling traffic using a Markov modulated process.

Using these characterizations as a reference we continuously monitor traffic and employ large deviations and decision theory results to “compare” the empirical measure of the monitored traffic with the corresponding reference characterization, thus, identifying traffic anomalies in real-time. Our experimental results show that applying our methodology (even short-lived) anomalies are identified within a small number of observations. Throughout, we compare  the two approaches presenting their advantages and disadvantages to identify and classify temporal network anomalies. We also demonstrate how our framework can be used to monitor traffic from multiple network elements in order to identify both spatial and temporal anomalies. We validate our techniques by analyzing real traffic traces with time-stamped anomalies.

Index Terms

Large deviations, Markov processes, method of types, network security, statistical anomaly detection.


CONTINUOUS MONITORING OF SPATIAL QUERIES IN WIRELESS BROADCAST ENVIRONMENTS.

ABSTRACT

Wireless data broadcast is a promising technique for information dissemination that leverages the computational capabilities of the mobile devices in order to enhance the scalability of the system. Under this environment, the data are continuously broadcast by the server, interleaved with some indexing information for query processing. Clients may then tune in the broadcast channel and process their queries locally without contacting the server. Previous work on spatial query processing for wireless broadcast systems has only considered snapshot queries over static data. In this paper, we propose an air indexing framework that

1) outperforms the existing (i.e., snapshot) techniques in terms of energy consumption while achieving low access latency and

2) constitutes the first method supporting efficient processing of continuous spatial queries over moving objects.

Index Terms

Spatial databases, query processing, location-based services, wireless data broadcast, air indexes.


MULTIPATH DISSEMINATION IN REGULAR MESH TOPOLOGIES.

ABSTRACT

Mesh topologies are important for large-scale peer-to-peer systems that use low-power transceivers. The Quality of Service (QoS) in such systems is known to decrease as the scale increases. We present a scalable approach for dissemination that exploits all the shortest paths between a pair of nodes and improves the QoS. Despite the presence of multiple shortest paths in a system, we show that these paths cannot be exploited by spreading the messages over the paths in a simple round-robin manner; nodes along one of these paths will always handle more messages than the nodes along the other paths. We characterize the set of shortest paths between a pair of nodes in regular mesh topologies and derive rules, using this characterization, to effectively spread the messages over all the available paths. These rules ensure that all the nodes that are at the same distance from the source handle roughly the same number of messages. By modeling the multihop propagation in the mesh topology as a multistage queuing network, we present simulation results from a variety of scenarios that include link failures and propagation irregularities to reflect real-world characteristics. Our method achieves improved QoS in all these scenarios.

Index Terms

Wireless communication, network communications, packet-switching networks, routing protocols, mesh topology.

MOVEMENT-ASSISTED CONNECTIVITY RESTORATION INWIRELESS SENSOR AND ACTOR NETWORKS.

ABSTRACT

Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in applications of wireless sensor and actor networks (WSANs). In these applications, a set of mobile actor nodes are deployed in addition to sensors in order to collect sensors’ data and perform specific tasks in response to detected events/objects. In most scenarios, actors have to respond collectively, which requires interactor coordination. Therefore, maintaining a connected interactor network is critical to the effectiveness of WSANs. However, WSANs often operate unattended in harsh environments where actors can easily fail or get damaged. An actor failure may lead to partitioning the interactor network and thus hinder the fulfillment of the application requirements. In this paper, we present DARA, a Distributed Actor Recovery Algorithm, which opts to efficiently restore the connectivity of the interactor network that has been affected by the failure of an actor.

Two variants of the algorithm are developed to address 1- and 2-connectivity requirements. The idea is to identify the least set of actors that should be repositioned in order to reestablish a particular level of connectivity. DARA strives to localize the scope of the recovery process and minimize the movement overhead imposed on the involved actors. The effectiveness of DARA is validated through simulation experiments.

Index Terms

Connectivity restoration, controlled node mobility, fault tolerance, wireless sensor and actor networks.

EVALUATING THE VULNERABILITY OF NETWORK TRAFFIC USING JOINT SECURITY AND ROUTING ANALYSIS.

ABSTRACT

Joint analysis of security and routing protocols in wireless networks reveals vulnerabilities of secure network traffic that remain undetected when security and routing protocols are analyzed independently. We formulate a class of continuous metrics to evaluate the vulnerability of network traffic as a function of security and routing protocols used in wireless networks. We develop two complementary vulnerability definitions using set theoretic and circuit theoretic interpretations of the security of network traffic, allowing a network analyst or an adversary to determine weaknesses in the secure network. We formalize node capture attacks using the vulnerability metric as a nonlinear integer programming minimization problem and propose the GNAVE algorithm, a Greedy Node capture Approximation using Vulnerability Evaluation. We discuss the availability of security parameters to the adversary and show that unknown parameters can be estimated using probabilistic analysis. We demonstrate vulnerability evaluation using the proposed

metrics and node capture attacks using the GNAVE algorithm through detailed examples and simulation.

Index Terms

Wireless networks, security, routing, node capture attacks, adversary models.

MULTIPLE ROUTING CONFIGURATIONS FOR FAST IP NETWORK RECOVERY.

ABSTRACT

As the Internet takes an increasingly central role in our communications infrastructure, the slow convergence of routing protocols after a network failure becomes a growing problem. To assure fast recovery from link and node failures in IP networks, we present a new recovery scheme called Multiple Routing Configurations (MRC). Our proposed scheme guarantees recovery in all single failure scenarios, using a single mechanism to handle both link and node failures, and without knowing the root cause of the failure. MRC is strictly connectionless, and assumes only destination based hop-by-hop forwarding. MRC is based on keeping additional routing information in the routers, and allows packet forwarding to continue on an alternative output link immediately

after the detection of a failure. It can be implemented with only minor changes to existing solutions. In this paper we present MRC, and analyze its performance with respect to scalability,

backup path lengths, and load distribution after a failure.We also show how an estimate of the traffic demands in the network can be used to improve the distribution of the recovered traffic, and thus reduce the chances of congestion when MRC is used.

Index Terms

Availability, computer network reliability, communication system fault tolerance, communication system routing, protection.

TWO BLOCKING ALGORITHMS ON ADAPTIVE BINARY SPLITTING: SINGLE AND PAIR RESOLUTIONS FOR RFID TAG IDENTIFICATION.

ABSTRACT

In radio frequency identification (RFID) systems, the reader identifies tags through communication over a shared wireless channel. When multiple tags transmit their IDs simultaneously, their signals collide, increasing the identification delay. Therefore, many previous anti-collision algorithms, including an adaptive query splitting algorithm (AQS) and an adaptive binary splitting algorithm (ABS), focused on solving this problem. This paper proposes two blocking algorithms, a single resolution blocking ABS algorithm (SRB) and a pair resolution blocking ABS algorithm (PRB), based on ABS. SRB not only inherits the essence of ABS which uses the information of recognized tags obtained from the last process of tag identification, but also adopts a blocking technique which prevents recognized tags from being collided by unrecognized tags. PRB further adopts a pair resolution technique which couples recognized tags and thus only needs half time for next identifying these recognized tags. We formally analyze the performance of SRB and PRB. Finally, the analytic and simulation results show that SRB slightly outperforms ABS and PRB significantly surpasses ABS.

Index Terms

Anti-collision, blocking algorithm, RFID, tag identification.


RESOURCE ALLOCATION IN OFDMA WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS SUPPORTING MULTIMEDIA SERVICES.

ABSTRACT

We design a resource allocation algorithm for downlink of orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) systems supporting real-time (RT) and best-effort (BE) services simultaneously over a time-varying wireless channel. The proposed algorithm aims at maximizing system throughput while satisfying quality of service (QoS) requirements of the RT and BE services. We take two kinds of QoS requirements into account. One is the required average transmission rate for both RT and BE services. The other is the tolerable average absolute deviation of transmission rate (AADTR) just for the RT services, which is used to control the fluctuation in transmission rates and to limit the RT packet delay to a moderate level. We formulate the optimization problem representing the resource allocation under consideration and solve it by using the dual optimization technique and the projection stochastic subgradient method. Simulation results show

that the proposed algorithm well meets the QoS requirements with the high throughput and outperforms the modified largest weighted delay first (M-LWDF) algorithm that supports similar

QoS requirements.

Index Terms

Multimedia communications, orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA), quality of service (QoS), radio resource allocation, wireless network.

ANALYSIS OF SHORTEST PATH ROUTING FOR LARGE MULTI-HOP WIRELESS NETWORKS.

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we analyze the impact of straight line routing in large homogeneous multi-hop wireless networks.We estimate the nodal load, which is defined as the number of packets served at a node, induced by straight line routing. For a given total offered load on the network, our analysis shows that the nodal load at each node is a function of the node’s Voronoi cell, the node’s location in the network, and the traffic pattern specified by the source and destination randomness and straight line routing. In the asymptotic regime, we show that each node’s probability that the node serves a packet arriving to the network approaches the products of half the length of the Voronoi cell perimeter and the load density function that a packet goes through the node’s location. The density function depends on the traffic pattern generated by straight line routing, and determines where the hot spot is created in the network. Hence, contrary to conventional wisdom, straight line routing can balance the load over the network, depending on

the traffic patterns.

Index Terms

Analysis, geometric probability, multi-hop wireless network, routing, simulations.


RESEQUENCING ANALYSIS OF STOP-AND-WAIT ARQ FOR PARALLEL MULTICHANNEL COMMUNICATIONS.

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we consider a multichannel data communication system in which the stop-and-wait automatic-repeatrequest protocol for parallel channels with an in-sequence delivery guarantee (MSW-ARQ-inS) is used for error control.We evaluate the resequencing delay and the resequencing buffer occupancy, respectively. Under the assumption that all channels have the same transmission rate but possibly different time-invariant error rates, we derive the probability generating function of the resequencing buffer occupancy and the probability mass function of the resequencing delay. Then, by assuming the Gilbert–Elliott model for each channel, we extend our analysis to time-varying channels. Through examples, we compute the probability mass functions of the resequencing buffer occupancy and the resequencing delay for time-invariant channels. From numerical and simulation results, we analyze trends in the mean resequencing buffer occupancy and the mean resequencing delay as functions of system parameters. We expect that the modeling technique and analytical approach used in this paper can be applied to the performance evaluation of other ARQ protocols (e.g., the selective-repeat ARQ) over multiple time-varying channels.

Index Terms

In-sequence delivery, modeling and performance, multichannel data communications, resequencing buffer occupancy, resequencing delay, SW-ARQ.


SECURE AND POLICY-COMPLIANT SOURCE ROUTING.

ABSTRACT

In today’s Internet, inter-domain route control remains elusive; nevertheless, such control could improve the performance, reliability, and utility of the network for end users and ISPs alike. While researchers have proposed a number of source routing techniques to comba this limitation, there has thus far been no way for independent ASes to ensure that such traffic does not circumvent local traffic policies, nor to accurately determine the correct party to charge for forwarding the traffic. We present Platypus, an authenticated source routing system built around the concept of network capabilities, which allow for accountable, fine-grained path selection by cryptographically attesting to policy compliance at each hop along a source route. Capabilities can be composed to construct routes through multiple ASes and can be delegated to third parties. Platypus caters to the needs of both end users and ISPs: users gain the ability to pool their resources and select routes other than the default, while ISPs maintain control over where, when, and whose packets traverse their networks. We describe the design and implementation of an extensive Platypus policy framework that can be used to address several issues in wide-area routing at both the edge and the core, and evaluate its performance and security. Our results show that incremental deployment of Platypus can achieve immediate gains.

Index Terms

Authentication, capabilities, overlay networks, source routing.


BIASED RANDOM WALKS IN UNIFORM WIRELESS NETWORKS.

ABSTRACT

A recurrent problem when designing distributed applications is to search for a node with known property. File searching in peer-to-peer (P2P) applications, resource discovery in service-oriented architectures (SOAs), and path discovery in routing can all be cast as a search problem. Random walk-based search algorithms are often suggested for tackling the search problem, especially in very dynamic systems-like mobile wireless networks. The cost and the effectiveness of a random walk-based search algorithm are measured by the excepted number of transmissions required before hitting the target. Hence, to have a low hitting time is a critical goal. This paper studies the effect of biasing random walk toward the target on the hitting time. For a walk running over a network with uniform node distribution, a simple upper bound that connects the hitting time to the bias level is obtained. The key result is that even a modest bias level is able to reduce the hitting time significantly. This paper also proposes a search protocol for mobile wireless networks, whose results are interpreted in the light of the theoretical study. The proposed solution is for unstructured wireless mobile networks.


ENERGY MAPS FOR MOBILE WIRELESS NETWORKS: COHERENCE TIME VERSUS SPREADING PERIOD.

ABSTRACT

We show that even though mobile networks are highly unpredictable when viewed at the individual node scale, the end-toend quality-of-service (QoS) metrics can be stationary when the mobile network is viewed in the aggregate. We define the coherence time as the maximum duration for which the end-to-end QoS metric remains roughly constant, and the spreading period as the minimum duration required to spread QoS information to all the nodes. We show that if the coherence time is greater than the spreading period, the end-to-end QoS metric can be tracked. We focus on the energy consumption as the end-to-end QoS metric, and describe a novel method by which an energy map can be constructed and refined in the joint memory of the mobile nodes. Finally, we show how energy maps can be utilized by an application that aims to minimize a node’s total energy consumption over its near-future trajectory.

Index Terms

Wireless, mobile, network, QoS, energy.


AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO SENSOR ROLE SELECTION.

ABSTRACT

Many sensor network applications require consistent coverage of the region in which they are deployed over the course of the network lifetime. However, because sensor networks may be deployed randomly, node distribution and data redundancy in some regions of the network may be lower than in others. The sensors in the sparsest regions should be considered more critical to the sensor network application since their removal would likely result in unmonitored regions in the environment. For this reason, sensors in the more densely deployed regions should be considered more favorable as candidates to route the traffic of other nodes in the network. In this work, we propose several coverage-aware routing costs that allow traffic to be routed around the sparsely deployed regions so that the coverage of the environment can remain high for a long lifetime. We also propose an integrated route discovery and sensor selection protocol called DAPR that further lengthens network lifetime by jointly selecting routers and active sensors, again with the goal of minimizing the use of sensors in sparsely covered areas. Simulation results show the effectiveness of our approach in extending network lifetime nearly to the extent that can be reached using a centralized approach based on global network knowledge.

INFORMATION CONTENT-BASED SENSOR SELECTION AND TRANSMISSION POWER   ADJUSTMENT FOR COLLABORATIVE TARGET TRACKING.

ABSTRACT

For target tracking applications, wireless sensor nodes provide accurate information since they can be deployed and operated near the phenomenon. These sensing devices have the opportunity of collaboration among themselves to improve the target localization and tracking accuracies. An energy-efficient collaborative target tracking paradigm is developed for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). A mutual-information-based sensor selection (MISS) algorithm is adopted for participation in the fusion process. MISS allows the sensor nodes with the highest mutual information about the target state to transmit data so that the energy consumption is reduced while the desired target position estimation accuracy is met. In addition, a novel  approach to energy savings in WSNs is devised in the information-controlled transmission power (ICTP) adjustment, where nodes with more information use higher transmission powers than those that are less informative to share their target state information with the neighboring nodes.   Simulations demonstrate the performance gains offered by MISS and ICTP in terms of power consumption and target localization accuracy.

Index Terms

Distributed tracking, wireless sensor networks, multisensor systems, mutual information, power control.

ON THE PLANNING OF WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS: ENERGY-EFFICIENT CLUSTERING UNDER THE JOINT ROUTING AND COVERAGE CONSTRAINT.

ABSTRACT

Minimizing energy dissipation and maximizing network lifetime are important issues in the design of applications and protocols for sensor networks. Energy-efficient sensor state planning consists in finding an optimal assignment of states to sensors in order to maximize network lifetime. For example, in area surveillance applications, only an optimal subset of sensors that fully covers the monitored area can be switched on while the other sensors are turned off. In this paper, we address the optimal planning of sensors’ states in cluster-based sensor networks. Typically, any sensor can be turned on, turned off, or promoted cluster head, and a different power consumption level is associated with each of these states. We seek an energy-optimal topology that maximizes network lifetime while ensuring simultaneously full area coverage and sensor connectivity to cluster heads, which are constrained to form a spanning tree used as a routing topology. First, we formulate this problem as an Integer Linear Programming model that we prove NP-Complete. Then, we implement a Tabu search heuristic to tackle the exponentially increasing computation time of the exact resolution. Experimental results show that the proposed heuristic provides near-optimal network lifetime values within low computation times, which is, in practice, suitable for large-sized sensor networks.

Index Terms

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs), coverage, clustering, routing, network lifetime, energy efficiency, optimization, mathematical programming, Tabu search heuristic.

GREEDY ROUTING WITH ANTI-VOID TRAVERSAL FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS.

ABSTRACT

The unreachability problem (i.e., the so-called void problem) that exists in the greedy routing algorithms has been studied for the wireless sensor networks. Some of the current research work cannot fully resolve the void problem, while there exist other schemes that can guarantee the delivery of packets with the excessive consumption of control overheads. In this paper, a greedy antivoid routing (GAR) protocol is proposed to solve the void problem with increased routing efficiency by exploiting the boundary finding technique for the unit disk graph (UDG). The proposed rolling-ball UDG boundary traversal (RUT) is employed to completely guarantee the delivery of packets from the source to the destination node under the UDG network. The boundary map (BM) and the indirect map searching (IMS) scheme are proposed as efficient algorithms for the realization of the RUT technique. Moreover, the hop count reduction (HCR) scheme is utilized as a short-cutting technique to reduce the routing hops by listening to the neighbor’s traffic, while the intersection navigation (IN) mechanism is proposed to obtain the best rolling direction for boundary traversal with the adoption of shortest path criterion. In order to maintain the network requirement of the proposed RUT scheme under the non-UDG networks, the partial UDG construction (PUC) mechanism is proposed to transform the non-UDG into UDG setting for a portion of nodes that facilitate boundary traversal. These three schemes are incorporated within the GAR protocol to further enhance the routing performance with reduced communication overhead. The proofs of correctness for the GAR scheme are also given in this paper. Comparing with the existing localized routing algorithms, the simulation results show that the proposed GAR-based protocols can provide better routing efficiency.

Index Terms

Greedy routing, void problem, unit disk graph, localized algorithm, wireless sensor network.

A GEN2-BASED RFID AUTHENTICATION PROTOCOL FOR SECURITY AND PRIVACY.

ABSTRACT

EPCglobal Class-1 Generation-2 specification (Gen2 in brief) has been approved as ISO18000-6C for global use, but the identity of tag (TID) is transmitted in plaintext which makes the tag traceable and clonable. Several solutions have been proposed based on traditional encryption methods, such as symmetric or asymmetric ciphers, but they are not suitable for low-cost RFID tags. Recently, some lightweight authentication protocols conforming to Gen2 have been proposed. However, the message flow of these protocols is different from Gen2. Existing readers may fail to read new tags. In this paper, we propose a novel authentication protocol based on Gen2, called Gen2þ, for low-cost RFID tags. Our protocol follows every message flow in Gen2 to provide backward compatibility. Gen2þ is a multiple round protocol using shared pseudonyms and Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) to achieve readerto- tag authentication. Conversely, Gen2þ uses the memory read command defined in Gen2 to achieve tag-to-reader authentication. We show that Gen2þ is more secure under tracing and cloning attacks.

Index Terms

Protocol design and analysis, security, privacy.


ON THE SECURITY OF ROUTE DISCOVERY IN MANETS.

ABSTRACT

Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are collections of wireless mobile devices with restricted broadcast range and resources, and no fixed infrastructure. Communication is achieved by relaying data along appropriate routes that are dynamically discovered and maintained through collaboration between the nodes. Discovery of such routes is a major task, both from efficiency and security points of view. Recently, a security model tailored to the specific requirements of MANETs was introduced by Acs, Buttya´n, and Vajda. Among the novel characteristics of this security model is that it promises security guarantee under concurrent executions, a feature of crucial practical implication for this type of distributed computation. A novel route discovery algorithm called endairA was also proposed, together with a claimed security proof within the same model. In this paper, we show that the security proof for the route discovery algorithm endairA is flawed, and moreover, this algorithm is vulnerable to a hidden channel attack. We also analyze the security framework that was used for route discovery and argue that composability is an essential feature for ubiquitous applications. We conclude by discussing some of the major security challenges for route discovery in MANETs.

Index Terms

Network protocols: routing protocols (security), Network architecture and design—distributed networks (security), computer communication networks (general): security and protection, management of computing and information systems (security), MANET security, hidden channels, provably secure protocols.

ROUTE STABILITY IN MANETS UNDER THE RANDOM DIRECTION MOBILITY MODEL.

ABSTRACT
A fundamental issue arising in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) is the selection of the optimal path between any two nodes. A method that has been advocated to improve routing efficiency is to select the most stable path so as to reduce the latency and the overhead due to route reconstruction. In this work, we study both the availability and the duration probability of a routing path that is subject to link failures caused by node mobility. In particular, we focus on the case where the network nodes move according to the Random Direction model, and we derive both exact and approximate (but simple) expressions of these probabilities. Through our results, we study the problem of selecting an optimal route in terms of path availability. Finally, we propose an approach to improve the efficiency of reactive routing protocols.

Index Terms

Mobile ad hoc networks, routing, modeling and analysis.

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3 thoughts on “IEEE XPLORE PROJECT’S ABSTRACT 1

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